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Canadian Toad (Anaxyrus hemiophrys)

Canadian_Toad_-Anaxyrus_hemiophrys
Canadian Toad – photo by ceasol

Common Name: Canadian Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus hemiophrys
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad Family
Locations: Canada and the United States
US Locations: Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming
Size: 1 1/2-3 1/4 inches (3.7-8.3 cm)

The Canadian Toad is more aquatic than most toad species in North America. They can be found in or near prairie wetlands. For the winter, the Canadian Toad can burrow below the frost line. They also overwinter within mima mounds, small earth mounds. These mounds can hold hundreds of toads at a time.

The Canadian Toad breeds from May to July depending on the location. They breed in shallow areas of water such as lakes, ponds, and temporary bodies of water. They lay several thousand eggs that hatch in 3 to 12 days. The tadpoles take 6 to 8 weeks to turn into full toads.

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Frogs by Country

Frogs and Toads of Quebec, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Quebec, Canada

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis)

The Mink Frog does not have a dorsal ridge or barely has one. Its back is spotted or marbled.

American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus)

The American Bullfrog is the largest frog in the country. It does not have a dorsal ridge.

Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans)

The Green Frog’s dorsal ridge is incomplete but runs most of the way down its back.

Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens)
Pickeral_Frog
Pickeral Frog (Lithobates palustris)

The Northern Leopard Frog has circular spots over its body while the  Pickeral Frog has more square like dots.

Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)

The Wood Frog has a dark mask around its face.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Northern Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans)

The Northern Cricket Frog has rougher, drier skin than the other tree frogs. Usually has a line down its back.

Eastern Gray Tree Frog (Hyla versicolor)

The Eastern Gray Tree Frog is the largest frog in the state. It has yellow coloration on its inner rear legs.

peeper
Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer)

The Spring Peeper is known for the X shaped marking on its back and its loud call that can be heard at the beginning of spring.

Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata)

Boreal Chorus Frog has three distinct stripes down its back that can be broken. It is found along the southern border with the US.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad’s cranial crests do not touch its paratoid gland or is connected by a spur.

Fowler’s Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri)

The Fowler’s Toad’s cranial crest does touch its paratoid gland. The belly of the Fowler’s Toad is white while the American Toad’s belly is speckled.

Frogs by Country

Frogs and Toads of New Brunswick, Canada

Frogs and Toads of New Brunswick, Canada

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

Green Frog

The Green Frog’s dorsal ridge is incomplete but runs most of the way down its back.

Mink Frog

The Mink Frog does not have a dorsal ridge or its barely present.

Northern Leopard Frog
Pickeral_Frog
Pickeral Frog

The Northern Leopard Frog has circular spots over its body while the  Pickeral Frog has more square like dots.

Wood Frog

The Wood Frog has a dark mask around its face.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Eastern Gray Tree Frog

The Eastern Gray Tree Frog has yellow coloration on its hind legs. Its the largest frog tree frog in the province.

Spring Peeper

The Spring Peeper has an X shape marked on its back. Its call is one of the first signs of spring.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

American Toad

The American Toad is the only toad in the whole province.

Frogs by Country

Frogs and Toads of Ontario, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Ontario, Canada

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus)

The American Bullfrog is the largest frog in the country. It does not have a dorsal ridge.

Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans)

The Green Frog’s dorsal ridge is incomplete but runs most of the way down its back.

Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis)

The Mink Frog lacks a dorsal ridge or barely has one. Its marbled or speckled on its back.

Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens)
Pickeral_Frog
Pickeral Frog (Lithobates palustris)

The Northern Leopard Frog has circular spots over its body while the  Pickeral Frog has more square like dots.

Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus )

The Wood Frog has a dark mask around its face.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Eastern Gray Tree Frog (Hyla versicolor)

The Eastern Gray Tree Frog does not have any distinct markings on its body. It has yellowish orange on its hind legs and is the largest tree frog in the province.

Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer)

The Spring Peeper has an X shape marking on its back.

Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata)

The Boreal Chorus Frog has three lines down its back.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

American Toad

The American Toad is the only toad in the whole province.

Frogs by Country

Frogs and Toads of Nova Scotia, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Nova Scotia, Canada

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans)

The Green Frog’s dorsal ridge is incomplete but runs most of the way down its back.

American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus)

The American Bullfrog is the largest frog in the country. It does not have a dorsal ridge.

Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens)
Pickeral_Frog
Pickeral Frog (Lithobates palustris)

The Northern Leopard Frog has circular spots over its body while the  Pickeral Frog has more square like dots.

Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)

The Wood Frog has a dark mask around its face.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer)

The Spring Peeper is the only tree frog in the province. They have a X shape mark on their back.

Toad

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad is the only toad in the whole province. They have drier, wartier skin than all the frogs.

Frogs by Country

Frogs and Toads of Prince Edward Island, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Prince Edward Island, Canada

There aren’t many frogs or toads here but here they are.

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

All the frogs in the province are from the true frog family – Ranidae.

Green FrogGreen Frog

The Green Frog has an incomplete dorsal ridge that runs nearly the length of its back.

Northern Leopard Frog

The Northern Leopard Frog has a complete dorsal ridge and large, well defined spots.

Wood Frog

The Wood Frog is known for the dark mask around its eyes.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

There is only one toad in the province and its a member of the true toad family – Bufonidae.

American Toad

The American Toad is the only toad in the whole province. It can produce a toxin called Bufotoxin which can be poisonous to humans and other animals. You and your pets should avoid eating it

 

Frogs of the World

Frogs and Toads of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Frogs

True Frog family – Ranidae

Green Frog

The Green Frog is only found in Newfoundland. It has an incomplete dorsal ridge that runs nearly the length of its back.

Mink Frog

The Mink Frog is only found in Labrador. They have an absent dorsal ridge or barely one.

Northern Leopard Frog

The Northern Leopard Frog has a complete dorsal ridge. Its found only in Labrador.

Wood Frog

The Wood Frog is known for the dark mask around its eyes. Its found only in the mainland.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

American Toad

The American Toad is the only toad in the whole province.

Frogs of the World

Frogs and Toads of Manitoba, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Manitoba, Canada

Frogs

True Frog family – Ranidae

Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)

The Wood Frog is known for the mask around its eyes. Its found throughout the province.

Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens)

The Northern Leopard Frog has large dark spots all over its body. They have a complete dorsal ridge.

Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans)

The Green Frog’s dorsal ridge is incomplete and doesn’t reach its butt.

Mink Frog (Lithobates septentrionalis)

The Mink Frog’s dorsal ridge is absent or weak.

Tree Frog family – Hylidae

Cope’s Gray Tree Frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) and Eastern Gray Tree Frog (Hyla versicolor)

The Cope’s Gray Tree Frog and Eastern Gray Tree Frog are nearly identical. The only differences are their calls and chromosome number.s

Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer)

The Spring Peeper has a distinct X shape on its back. It is one of the first frogs to start calling during spring.

Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata)

The Boreal Chorus Frog has three stripes that run down its back.

Toads

True Toad family – Bufonidae

American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad’s cranial crest forms opposing L shapes.

Great Plains Toad (Anaxyrus cognatus)

The Great Plains Toad’s cranial crest forms a V shape between the eyes.

Spadefoot Toad family – Scaphiopodidae

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Plains Spadefoot Toad (Spea bombifrons)

The Plains Spadefoot toad is the only spadefoot toad in the province. Look at the rear foot of the toad and you will find a keratinized spade on it which no other toad or frog in the province has.

Frogs by Country

Frogs and Toads of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Yukon, Canada

Western Toad (Anaxyrus boreas)

The Western Toad is the only toad in the territory.  Its found in the southern edge of the state.

Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)

The Wood Frog is found farther north than most of the other frogs and toads in the territory. They have a dark mask around their face.

Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris)

The Columbia Spotted Frog has small spots that are lighter on the inside. They are found in the southern part of the territory.

Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata)

Boreal Chorus Frog barely makes it over to the southern edge of the territory.

Frogs and Toads of Northwest Territories, Canada

American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad is the only toad in the territory. It is found along the southern part.

Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata)

The Boreal Chorus Frog is the only tree frog in the Northwest territories. It has three stripes that run down its back.

Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)

The Wood Frog is the only true frog in the Northwest territory.  Its found along the southern and western edge of the territory.

Frogs and Toads of Nunavut, Canada

American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad is the only toad in the territory. Its found along the southern edge of the state.

Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)

The Wood Frog is the only frog in the territory. Its found in the southern edge of the territory.

Frogs by Country

Frogs and Toads of Saskatchewan, Canada

Frogs and Toads of Saskatchewan, Canada

Frog

True Frog family – Ranidae

Wood Frog

The Wood Frog has a mask around its eyes. The colors of the wood frog varies from brown, silver, and red.

Northern Leopard Frog

The Northern Leopard Frog has large black, defined spots all over its body. It is found throughout the province.

Tree Frog family – Hylidae

Boreal Chorus Frog

The Boreal Chorus Frog is the only tree frog in the province . It has three lines that run down its back.

Toad

True Toad family – Bufonidae

American Toad

The American Toad cranial crest forms opposing L shapes. It is found throughout the province.

Great Plains Toad

The Great Plains Toad’s cranial crest forms a V shape. It is found in the southwestern part of the province .

Spadefoot Toad family – Scaphiopodidae

Plains Spadefoot Toad

The Plains Spadefoot toad is the only spadefoot toad in the province . Look at the rear foot of the toad and you will find a keratinized spade on it which no other toad or frog in the province has.