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Froggin Up North

Here are some of the frogs and toads i saw last month while up north, sorry for the delay. Also some other bonus animals.

Spring Peepers, Green Frog, American Bullfrogs, American Toads, and Northern Leopard Frogs

Notice that the squirrel is black

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Salamanders and Newts of Prince Edward Island

Ambystomatidae – Mole Salamander family

Blue Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma laterale)

The Blue Spotted Salamander has a dark body with speckled blue dots on its side.

Spotted Salamander  (Ambystoma maculatum)

The Spotted Salamander has a dark body with 2 lines of yellow dots down its body.

Plethodontidae – Lungless Salamander family

Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus)

The Eastern Red-backed Salamander has a dark gray body with a red stripe down its back. Sometimes, the salamander lacks the red on its back and is just gray in color.

Salamandridae

Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens)

The Eastern Newt has 3 distinct life stages, an aquatic larval phase, a terrestrial eft stage, and another aquatic stage but as an adult.

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Fitzinger’s Robber Frog (Craugastor fitzingeri)

Fitzinger's Robber Frog
photo by WIlliam Flaxington

Common Name: Fitzinger’s Robber Frog
Scientific Name: Craugastor fitzingeri
Family: Craugastoridae
Locations: Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
Female Size: 2 inches (52.5 mm)
Male Size: 0.9 – 1.4 inches (23.5 – 35 mm)

The Fitzinger’s Robber Frog lives in a variety of habitats from rain forests to dry gallery forests. They are primarily found amongst the leaf litter. The species is named after Leopold Fitzinger, an Austrian zoologist.

Females lays around 85 eggs and will sit on the nest until they hatch. They are a direct developing species, skipping a free larval phase.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Fitzinger’s Robber Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. The frog has a wide range and are common throughout it.

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Frogs and Toads of Wales

Wales is not home to many species of frogs and toads.

Frogs

Ranidae – True Frog family

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European Common Brown Frog (Rana temporaria)

Common Name: European Common Brown Frog
Scientific Name: Rana temporaria
Location: Throughout

The Common Frog has smoother skin than the toads.

Toads

Bufonidae – True Toad family

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Nattarjack Toad(Epidalea calamita)

Common Name: Nattarjack Toad
Scientific Name: Epidalea calamita
Location: North Wales coast

The Nattarjack has a bold yellow line down the center of its back, differing from the Common Toad. They are usually smaller than the Common Toad as well.

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Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

Common Name: Common Toad
Scientific Name: Bufo bufo
Location: Throughout

The most wide spread of the frogs and toads of Wales.

Introduced Species

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African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

Common Name: African Clawed Frog
Scientific Name: Xenopus laevis
Location: Southern Wales

The African Clawed Frog is a fully aquatic frog that was once used as pregnancy tests in labs. Sadly, some individuals have escaped those labs or were released. These frogs are blamed for the spread of diseases.

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Common Midwife Toad (Alytes obstetricans)

Common Name: Common Midwife Toad
Scientific Name: Alytes obstericans
Location: Around Llandrindod Wells

Originally introduced in Bedford in the 19th century, the toad has spread out a bit.

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Frogs and Toads of Scotland

Frogs and Toads of Scotland

Scotland is only home to one frog species and two toad species.

Frogs

Ranidae – True Frog family

commonfrog
European Common Brown Frog (Rana temporaria)

Common Name: European Brown Frog
Scientific Name: Rana temporaria
Location:Throughout

The European Common Brown Frog is the most common frog in Europe. It has smoother skin compared to the toads.

Toads

Bufonidae – True Toad family

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Nattarjack Toad(Epidalea calamita)

Common Name: Nattarjack Toad
Scientific Name: Epidalea calamita
Location: Dumfriesshire coast

The Nattarjack Toad has a bright yellow stripe down its back that the Common Toad lacks.

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Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

Common Name: Common Toad
Scientific Name: Bufo bufo
Location: Throughout

The Common Toad is more common than the Nattarjack Toad as well as larger.

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Frogs and Toads of England

England is home to various frogs and toads.

Frogs

Ranidae – True Frog family

The True Frogs are your typical frogs, generally smooth skin with long legs.

Common Name: European Brown Frog
Scientific Name: Rana temporaria
Location: Throughout

The European Brown Frog has a dark bar behind its eyes and on its legs that help identify it.

Common Name: Pool Frog
Scientific Name: Pelophylax lessonae
Location: Norfolk

The Pool Frog went extinct in the UK in the 1990’s but they have been re-introduced.

Toads

Bufonidae – True Toad family

The True Toads are your typical toad with warty skin and short legs. They usually have a parotid gland behind their eyes that contain a poison. It is not advised to let your dog eat these guys.

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Nattarjack Toad(Epidalea calamita)

Common Name: Nattarjack Toad
Scientific Name: Epidalea calamita
Location: Sand dunes along the Merseyside coast, the Cumbrian coast, and on the Scottish Solway

The Nattarjack has a bold yellow line down the center of its back, differing from the Common Toad. They are usually smaller than the Common Toad as well.

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Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

Common Name: Common Toad
Scientific Name: Bufo bufo
Location: Throughout

The most wide spread of the frogs and toads of England.

Invasive Species

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Common Midwife Toad (Alytes obstetricans)

Common Name: Common Midwife Toad
Scientific Name: Alytes obstericans
Location: Southern part

Originally introduced in Bedford in the 19th century, the toad has spread out a bit.

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Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus)

Common Name: Marsh Frog
Scientific Name: Pelophylax ridibundus
Location: Southeastern part

The Marsh Frog is the largest frog native to Europe but sadly, they have been introduced to England. Their size allows them to predate on native species.

American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

Common Name: American Bullfrog
Scientific Name: Rana catesbeiana
Location: Southeast England

The American Bullfrog is native to the eastern United States but has spread around the world due to demand for its legs.

Edible Frog (Pelophylax esculentus)

Common Name: Edible Frog
Scientific Name: Pelophylax esculentus
Location: Southeastern England

The Edible Frog appears very similar to the Marsh and the Pool Frog. They can even breed with them, making it hard to differentiate between them.

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Puerto Rico Trip

Last month, I went to Puerto Rico and I thought I’d share some pics.

Various pics of Crested Anoles (Anolis cristatellus)

Puerto Rican Ground Lizard (Pholidoscelis exsul

There was many Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana) chilling

Some videos of a turtle and fish from when i was snorkeling

some photos from El Yunque, the only rain forest in the usa

Random photos

Pics of the old fortresses in San Juan

some terrible pics of the only coqui i found

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Purple Harlequin Toad (Atelopus barbotini)

Purple Harlequin Toad
photo by Henk Wallays

Common Name: Purple Harlequin Toad or Purple Fluorescent Frog
Scientific Name: Atelopus barbotini
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad family
Locations: French Guiana
Size: 1 – 1.3 inches (25 – 34 mm)

Species or sub-species? That is the main question for the Purple Harlequin Toad. They were considered / still are a subspecies of the Pebas Stubfoot Toad (Atelopus spumarius). Two different papers have shown that the Purple Harlequin Toad and the Pebas Stubfood Toad are not the same species. Though one of the papers argued that they are a subspecies of Cayenne Stubfoot Toad (Atelopus flavescens). But then there’s more. Another group of researchers has shown that the toad is part of the Hoogmoed’s Harlequin Frog (Atelopus hoogmoedi) species complex. At the end of the day, who care’s? It’s really cute.

photo by Christopher McHale 

The International Union for the Conservation has not assessed the species because they don’t believe it is an independent species. However, the toad isn’t doing well. The whole genus Atelopus has been decimated by Chytrid Fungus, a deadly fungal disease. On top of that, deforestation and gold mining isn’t helping any of them.

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Gardiner’s Seychelles Frog (Sechellophryne gardineri)

Gardiner's Seychelles Frog
photo by Evan Pickett
Conservation status is Endangered

Common Name: Gardiner’s Seychelles Frog
Scientific Name: Sechellophryne gardineri
Family: Sooglossidae – Seychelles Frog family
Locations: Seychelles Islands
Size: 0.3- .04 inches (10 – 11 mm)

The Gardiner’s Seychelles Frog lives on the islands of Seychelles, primarily on the Mahé and Silhouette islands. They are one of the smallest species of frogs in the world. The frogs spend their life amongst the leaf litter or on low vegetation in rain forests.

The frogs breed all year long. The males call out from under the leaf litter to attract females. Once the female arrives, the male grasps her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female lays her eggs and the male fertilizes them. The female lays between 8 to 16 eggs. The eggs directly hatch into tiny froglets, skipping the tadpole stage.

The Gardiner’s Seychelles Frog is listed as Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The two main threats to the frog is climate change and habitat degradation. Some of the rainforests where they live were changed to cinnamon tree plantations. Luckily, the frog does live in the Morne Seychellois National Park which protects them. There are captive colonies of the frog but they have not been able to be bred in captivity.