Frog of the Week

Java Indonesian Tree Frog (Nyctixalus margaritifer)

Java Indonesian Tree Frog
photo by myfier

Common Name: Java Indonesian Tree Frog or Pearly Tree Frog
Scientific Name: Nyctixalus margaritifer
Family: Rhacophoridae – Asian Tree Frog family
Locations: Indonesia
Female Size: 1.2 – 1.7 inches (31 – 43 mm)
Male Size: 1.2 – 1.3 inches (30 – 33 mm)

The Java Indonesian Tree Frog lives high in trees in the mountains on Java Island. Sadly, not much is known about the species.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Java Indonesian Tree Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They were considered Vulnerable to Extinction until new populations of the frogs were found. However, the frogs are still threatened by habitat loss from cutting down forests to make room for more coffee, tea, and rice farms.

Frog of the Week

Granular Glass Frog (Cochranella granulosa)

Granular Glass Frog
photo by Shawn Mallan

Common Name: Granular Glass Frog
Scientific Name: Cochranella granulosa
Family: Centrolenidae – Glass Frog family
Locations: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
Male Size: 0.8 – 1.1 inches (22 – 29 mm)
Female Size: 1.1 – 1.25 inches (29 – 32 mm)

The Granular Glass Frog lives in the trees and bushes of montane and humid lowland forests. They are a nocturnal species of frog, spending most of their day hiding on leaves. During the breeding season, the males of the species call from vegetation overhanging streams. Once the female arrive, the male grabs them from behind in amplexus. Then, the female lays her eggs and the male fertilizes them. The female lays between 49 – 60 eggs in a clutch on the vegetation above the stream. Neither parent provides any care for their offspring. Once the eggs hatch, the tadpoles fall into the stream below where they will complete their metamorphosis.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Granular Glass Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a large range and presumed large population. While the frog is in good standing currently, deforestation in its region could be a threat in the future.

Frog of the Week

Palawan Horned Frog (Pelobatrachus ligayae)

Palawan Horned Frog
photo by Albert Kang

Common Name: Palawan Horned Frog
Scientific Name: Pelobatrachus ligayae
Family: Megophrynidae – Asian Leaf Litter Frog family
Locations: Philippines
Size: 2.7 – 4.3 inches (70 – 110 mm)

The Palawan Horned Frog lives in the leaf litter of montane and lowland rainforests on the islands of Balabac and Palawan. The frog sits most of the day, camouflaged amongst the leaves waiting for its prey to walk by. Once the prey crosses its path, the frog grabs the prey with its mouth and tries to swallow it whole. The eggs are laid in shallow, slow moving streams.

The frog was in genus Megophrys before being moved in 2021. It was also considered the same species as the Asian Horned Frog (Megophrys montana) before being moved to its own species in 1998.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Palawan Horned Frog as Near Threatened with Extinction. The main threat to the frogs is the continued destruction of the rain forests they call home by humans Why are people doing this? Well for a lot of reasons. First, they want more room for cities, small farms, palm oil plantations, and mining. Next, the wood is wanted for charcoal making. Finally, the streams that they use for breeding get polluted by these activities. Better protection of these forests are needed to keep the frogs from becoming extinct.

Frog of the Week

Sabana Surinam Toad (Pipa parva)

Sabana Surinam Toad
photo by JSutton93

Common Name: Sabana Surinam Toad, Suriname Dwarf Toad
Scientific Name: Pipa parva
Family: Pipidae– Tongueless Frog family
Locations: Colombia and Venezuela
Size: 0.86 – 1.73 inches (27 – 44 mm)

The Sabana Surinam Toad lives in the lakes, ponds, and marshes in the Lake Maracaibo Basin and has expanded its range recently to the Lake Valencia Basin. It is a highly aquatic species, only moving on land once their water bodies start to dry up or during the rain.

Reproduction methods of the toad is similar to the other toads in the family. In the water, the male frog grabs the female from behind around the waist. Then, the female frog starts to swim up to the surface and somersaults back down repeatedly. She lays her eggs while she does this and the male fertilizes the eggs and pushes them into her back. The female carries the eggs around in her back for around 30 days before the eggs hatch and tadpoles come out.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Sabana Surinam Toad as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a wide range, large population, and are very adaptable to changes. The toads are even expanding their range which could have negative effects on other species. There are no threats known to the frog atm.


New Species of Siren – Seepage Siren (Siren sphagnicola)

photo by: Fedler et al., doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.5258.4.1.

A new species of siren has been described from coastal southeastern United States. Sirens are a type of aquatic salamanders that live a highly secretive lifestyle. They spend most of their time at the bottom of muddy ponds, swamps, and streams, making them hard to observe. The new species was named after the seepage fed creeks that they live in.

The Seepage Siren is the smallest of the genus Siren, only reaching 7.8 inches (20 cm) long while some sirens can reach over 3 feet long. Besides being smaller than the other sirens, it also has 30 – 33 costal grooves and a gray base color.

You can read the full paper here.

Frog of the Week

Brimley’s Chorus Frog (Pseudacris brimleyi)

Brimley's Chorus Frog
photo by Todd Pierson

Common Name: Brimley’s Chorus Frog
Scientific Name: Pseudacris brimleyi
Family: Hylidae – Tree Frog family
Locations: United States – Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia
Size: 1 – 1.3 inches(2.5 – 3.2 cm)

The Brimley’s Chorus Frog lives along the southeastern coast of the United States. Mating season for the frog lasts from December to April with more northern populations starting closer to February. The male frogs call from flooded ditches and shallow ponds to attract the females. Once the female arrives, the male grasps her from behind aka amplexus. Then, she lays her eggs and the male fertilizes them. Females lay up to 300 eggs in the water. Neither parent provides any care for their offspring. Tadpoles take 4 to 8 weeks to complete their metamorphosis.

The frog is named after Clement Samuel Brimley, a herpetologist from North Carolina and worked at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. It is not named for his brother Herbert Hutchinson Brimley who worked at the same museum as Clement. Kinda rude tbh

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Brimley’s Chorus Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a decent range and are thought to be common throughout it.

Frog of the Week

Black Spotted Rock Frog (Staurois guttatus)

Black Spotted Rock Frog
photo by Rachel Friedman

Common Name: Black Spotted Rock Frog or Black Spotter Rock Slipper
Scientific Name: Staurois guttatus
Family: Ranidae – True Frog Family
Locations: Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia
Female Size:  38.0 – 54.7 mm
Male Size: 34.9 – 37.7 mm 

The Black Spotted Rock Frog lives along rocky, clear, fast moving streams in forests. They are a diurnal species of frog (active during the day). The frogs are able to live amongst the loud streams thanks to their ability to communicate through foot flagging. There are some other species that foot flag but they are one of the only ones where both males and females do the behavior.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Black Spotted Rock Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a good size range and are numerous throughout it. The deforestation in the region is the primary threat to the frog. People are clearing the forests to make room for oil palm plantations, towns, or just to just sell the lumber.

Frog of the Week

Crowned Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus occipitalis) 

Crowned Bullfrog
photo by Brian Gratwicke

Common Name: Crowned Bullfrog, African Groove-Crowned Bullfrog
Scientific Name: Hoplobatrachus occipitalis
Family: Dicroglossidae – Forked Tongue Frog family
Locations: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia
Size: 2.6 – 5.3 inches (68 – 135 mm)

The Crowned Bullfrog lives in savannas and some forests in sub-Saharan Africa. Frogs start to move to temporary ponds once the rainy season starts and the ponds start filling up. The Crowned Bullfrog takes the phrase don’t store all your eggs in one basket to heart. The mating pair only deposits a few eggs per rock pool and move on to the next one to prevent all their offspring from being eaten by one predator or drying out.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Crowned Bullfrog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a extremely wide range and are common throughout it. Overharvesting of the frogs is a problem for locale populations but overall, not a serious threat.

Frog of the Week

Pacific Lowland Poison Frog (Epipedobates machalilla)

Pacific Lowland Poison Frog
photo by Rebecca Tarvin

Common Name: Pacific Lowland Poison Frog
Scientific Name: Epipedobates machalilla
Family: Dendrobatidae – Poison Dart Frog family
Locations: Ecuador
Size: 14.4 – 17.6 mm

The Pacific Lowland Poison Frog lives in a variety of habitats in western Ecuador including the dry scrublands, deciduous forests, and the Choco rain forests. The female frog lays her eggs on land. After the female frog lays around 15 eggs, she leaves and the male takes care of the eggs. The male protects the eggs from predators and carries them on his back. Once the eggs hatch into tadpoles, the male carries them to a stream bank or pond where they will continue to grow and finish their metamorphosis.

Pacific Lowland Poison Frog carrying his tadpoles
photo by Cristopher Rodríguez-Moreira

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a wide range and believed to be large population. While listed as Least Concern, there are threats to the frogs from humans (we the worst).Areas of forests where the frog calls home are being logged and turned into farms.

Frog of the Week

Guibe’s Mantella (Mantella nigricans)

Guibe's Mantella
photo by flickr user Vogelfoto69

Common Name: Guibe’s Mantella, Green and Black Mantella
Scientific Name: Mantella nigricans
Family: Mantellidae
Locations: Madagascar
Size: 1.1 inches (28 mm)

The Guibe’s Mantella lives along streams in the rainforests of northern Madagascar. Mating primarily happens during the rainy season. Males call out from spots around the stream to attract the females. Once the female arrives, the male grasps her from behind in amplexus. Then, she lays her eggs usually under a moist leaf. Females lay around 40 eggs. Neither parent provides any parental care. The eggs take around a week to hatch into tadpoles.

Frog is named after french herpetologist Jean Guibé, who kinda described the species and worked in Madasgascar. He thought it was a subspecies of the Cowan’s Mantella (Mantella cowani)

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Guibe’s Mantella as Least Concern for Extinction. This is due to their wide range and presumed large population. It’s nice to see a Mantella ranked as only Least Concern because many of the species are at least considered endangered.