Frog of the Week

White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog (Leptodactylus fragilis)

White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog
photo by Esteban Alzate
leastconcern


Common Name: White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog, Mexican White-Lipped Frog, and American White-Lipped Frog
Scientific Name: Leptodactylus fragilis
Family: Leptodactylidae
Location: United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela
US Locations: Texas
Introduced Locations: Cuba
Size: 1.2 – 2 inches (3 – 5 cm)

The White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog lives in a variety of habitats from savannahs to montane tropical forests. The frogs are often referred to as the Mexican White-Lipped Frog but they are found in a lot more places than just Mexico. Therefore, the name isn’t really fitting imo. The frogs feed on invertebrates such as spiders and beetles, mainly during the night, making them nocturnal.

The White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog breeds in spring following heavy rains. The males dig out a breeding spot under rocks or logs for mating. Next, he calls out for females in hopes of finding a mate. Once he finds the mate, he grasps her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the male and female create a foamy nest made out of their secretions to house the eggs. The female lays between 20 and 250 egg. Neither parent provides any further care for the offspring. The nest keeps the eggs from drying out until the rains arrive. The rains fill the burrow and break the tadpoles out of the eggs. Then, the tadpoles taken under a month to turn into frogs.

White-lipped Thin-toed Frog Conservation

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a wide range, reaching from the top of Texas down into the northern parts of South America. The frogs are also thought to be abundant throughout the range.

Recently, scientists discovered the frog in Cuba, a place where they are not naturally found. Scientists and conservationists are worried about the effects these frogs can have on the native wildlife and frog populations of Cuba. Researchers believe that the frog can become invasive in Cuba if left unchecked.

Frog of the Week

Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog (Epipedobates anthonyi)

Phantasmal Poison Dart Frog
photo by John P Clare

Common Name: Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog or Anthony’s Poison Arrow Frog
Scientific Name: Epipedobates anthonyi
Family: Dendrobatidae – Poison Dart Frog family
Locations: Ecuador and Peru
Size: 0.75 – 0.96 inches (19 – 24.5mm)

The Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog lives in equatorial dry forest and montane forest on the western slopes of the Andes. They are diurnal, active during the day, thanks to their poisons scaring off predators. Predators able to tell they are poisonous due to their bright colors.

Mating takes place during the wet season. The males call out to attract the females to the territory the male guards. Once the female arrives, the male grasps the female around the head (cephalic amplexus). Then, the female lays her eggs in leaf litter and the male fertilizes them. The female lays between 15 – 40 eggs. After mating, the males protect the eggs until they hatch. Once the eggs hatch into tadpoles, the male carries them on his back to pools of water or streams. There, the tadpoles complete their metamorphosis.

The Anthony’s Poison Arrow Frog is found in the pet trade. The frogs are not poisonous in captivity due to the frogs accumulating their poison from the ants and termites they eat. If you want to buy an Anthony’s Poison Arrow Frog as a pet, make sure to buy a captive bred frog due to their conservation state. Also, read my article – Preparing for a Pet Frog or Toad to see how to get ready for one.

Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog Conservation

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog as Near Threatened with Extinction. The frog has a pretty small range that is threatened with habitat destruction. Luckily, the population is still abundant in some parts of their range. The frogs have also been adapting to life surrounding plantations and farms.

Frog of the Week

European Tree Frog (Hyla arborea)

European Tree Frog
photo by Christian Fischer
least concern

Common Name: European Tree Frog
Scientific Name: Hyla arborea
Family: Hylidae – Tree Frog Family
Location: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and Ukraine.
Introduced Location: United Kingdom
Male Size: 1.3–1.7 inches (32 – 43 mm)
Female Size: 1.6 – 2.0 inches (40 – 50 mm)

The European Tree Frog lives throughout most of Europe and down to the northern parts of the Middle East. They prefer to live in broad-leafed and mixed forests, bushlands, meadows, and shrubland. The frogs vary in color from green, gray, brown, and yellowish.

Mating occurs between March and June. First, the males move to ponds, lakes, and other stagnant water bodies and start calling. Once a female arrives, the male grasps her from behind in amplexus. Then, the female lays her eggs and the male fertilizes them. The female lays between 200 – 2000 eggs. Neither parent provides any parental care. The eggs hatch into tadpoles in 10 – 14 days after being laid. Then, the tadpoles usually complete their metamorphosis in 3 months, peaking in July.

European Tree Frog
photo by wikiuser RobertC1301

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes he European Tree Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a wide range and are thought to be abundant throughout it. There are local population declines due to habitat loss from destroying forests to make room for urban development.

Frog of the Week

Climbing Mantella (Mantella laevigata)

Climbing Mantella
photo by Frank Vassen

Common Name: Climbing Mantella, Arboreal Mantella, Green-backed Mantella, and Folohy Golden Frog
Scientific Name: Mantella laevigata
Family: Mantellidae – Mantella family
Locations: Madagascar
Size: 0.86 – 1.14 inches (22-29 mm)

Just like all other Mantellas, the Climbing Mantella is found on the island of Madagascar. Specially, they are found in the rain forests, bamboo forests, and wooded forests in northeastern region. They are active during the day (diurnal), like all Mantellas.

The Climbing Mantella is one of the only arboreal species of Mantella. They can climb up to 4 meters high in trees and are often found on plants. They don’t even breed on the ground. During breeding season, the males call out during the day to attract the females. The males are territorial and will fight males that enter their land. However, some males do not defend their territory.

The males call out from raised platforms to attract female. Once a female arrives, the male puts his chin on the top of her head as a courtship display. Then, the male leads the female to a well in the vegetation. Once in there, the male grasps the female around the armpits (axillary amplexus) from behind. Next, the female lays only one eggs in the well and the male fertilizes it. The male stays at the well, hoping to attract more mates and to protect the eggs. The female leaves but often comes back to lay an unfertilized egg for the tadpole to eat.

Mantella frogs are very similar to Poison Dart Frogs. Both display bright colors to show off their toxic taste. They both don’t produce their own poison, they accumulate their poisons for their diet of ants.

Climbing Mantella Conservation

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Climbing Mantella as Least Concern for Extinction. The frog is abundant in its habitat though there are some threats on the horizon. Increased deforestation due to creating more farms, grazing areas for cattle, and towns is a serious future threat. Also, the harvesting of the frogs for the pet trade is another serious threat to their survival.

Frog of the Week

Japanese Common Toad (Bufo japonicus)

Japanese Common Toad
photo by Yasunori Koide 

Common Name: Japanese Common Toad
Scientific Name: Bufo japonicus
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad family
Locations: Japan
Size: 3.1 – 6.9 inches (80 – 176 mm)

The Japanese Common Toad lives on the islands of Kyusyu, Shikoku, Hokkaido, and Honshu of Japan. They have also been introduced to the island of Izu Oshima. Additionally, they live in a wide range of habitats from coastal areas to high in the mountains. The toads vary in color from a dark green, yellowish brown, to dark brown. Like most toads, they are active during the night and hide during the day.

Two subspecies of the toads are recognized by some researchers. The subspecies are the Eastern Japanese Common Toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and the Western Japanese Common Toad (Bufo japonicus japonicus). The western subspecies is slightly larger than the eastern.

Mating

The breeding season for the toads is late winter / early spring from February to March. The toads migrate to ponds and swamps to breed. They use odor cues to find their way to these water bodies. In the pond, the males outnumber the females, leading to fighting and scrambling for a mate. The males try to grasp the females from behind in the amplexus position. Next, the female starts to lay her eggs. The females lay between 1,500-14,000 eggs. Then, the male fertilizes the eggs. Neither parent provides any care for their offspring. The eggs hatch into tadpoles shortly after. Then, the tadpoles complete their metamorphosis in June.

Conservation for the Japanese Common Toad

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Japanese Common Toad as Least Concern for Extinction. The species populations are decreasing but not at an alarming rate. The main cause of the declines is habitat loss from the urbanization of their land.

Frog of the Week

Limosa Harlequin Frog (Atelopus limosus)

Limosa Harlequin Frog
photo by Brian Gratwicke

Common Name: Limosa Harlequin Frog
Scientific Name: Atelopus limosus
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad family
Locations: Panama
Size: 1 – 1.6 inches (26.5 – 40.2 mm)

The Limosa Harlequin Frog lives amongst slopes of rocky streams in the forests of central Panama. Their bright colors warn predators of their toxicity, allowing them to be active during the day. There are two different morphs of the species. The lowland morph has a brown color with yellow fingertips. Meanwhile, the highland morph is green and yellow with a black V on its back. The females generally have a red / orange colored belly.

Limosa Harlequin Frog Conservation

The Harlequin Frogs(Atelopus) are one of the most endangered group of frogs in the world and sadly, the Limosa Harlequin Frog doesn’t fair any better. Additionally, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List classifies the frog as Critically Endangered. It is estimated that 80% of the population will die off One of the main reason for the declines is the invasive fungal pathogen Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). This pathogen causes the skin of the frog to harden. Due to frogs only breathing through their skin, this causes them to suffocate and die. The loss of habitat for urban development and farms is another reason for the declines. At last, pollution from gold mining isn’t helping either.

To help ensure that the Limosa Harlequin Frog survives, researchers at the Smithsonian Institute and the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project have taken some of the frogs into captivity. They are raising frogs and tadpoles to release into the wild as well as keeping an emergency group in place.

Frog of the Week

Cape Platanna (Xenopus gilli)

Cape Platanna
photo by flickr user Chris Verwey
Conservation status is Endangered

Common Name: Cape Platanna, Gill’s Plantanna, and Cape Clawed Toad
Scientific Name: Xenopus gilli
Family: Pipidae – Tongueless Frog family
Locations: South Africa
Size: 2.3 inches (60 mm)

The Cape Platanna is an aquatic frog that inhabits the highly acidic seepages, marshes, ponds, and lakes of coastal South Africa. These waterbodies are dark in color, allowing the frogs to blend in. The Platanna are able to “see” in this water due to their highly developed lateral line system. This system always them to detect small vibrations in the water. The frogs have highly webbed clawed toes on their back legs to help them swim. They only come to the surface when their wetlands dry up during the summer or when they want to migrate ponds during the mating season. The frogs aestivate during the summer when their ponds dry up by digging deep into the mud.

The Cape Platanna breeds during the winter months between July to October. Unlike most frogs, members of the family Pipidae lack vocal sacs. To communicate with female frogs, the male frogs make a series clicks. Once the female selects her mate, the male grasps her around the waist in the amplexus position. Then, the female lays between 300 – 400 eggs while the male fertilizes them. Neither parent is known to provide any parental care. Once the eggs hatch, the tadpoles take 120 days to complete their metamorphosis.

Cape Platanna Conservation

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Cape Platanna as Endangered with Extinction. There is believed to be only 5 locations where the frogs live. Most of the wetlands that the frog calls home as been filled to make room for housing development and farm lands. Additionally, the frog hybridizes with the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis), reducing their numbers. Better protections are needed to help save them.

Frog of the Week

Holy Cross Frog (Notaden bennettii)

Holy Cross Frog
photo by wikiuser Tnarg 12345

Common Name: Holy Cross Frog, Crucifix Frog, and Crucifix Toad
Scientific Name: Notaden bennettii
Family: Myobatrachidae – Australian Ground Frog family
Locations: Australia
Size: 2.7 inches (6.8 cm)

The Holy Cross Frog is a fossorial species of frog found in the  black soil plains and semi-arid grassland regions of western New South Wales and Queensland. During the dry times, the frog burrows down in the ground and surrounds itself in a cocoon to preserve water. They are capable of digging down almost 10 feet (3 meters)! Due to their fossorial lifestyle, the frogs feed primarily on ants and termites. When threatened by predators, the frogs produce a sticky, glue-like substance that predators don’t want to eat. It is advised to wash your hands after handling the Holy Cross Frog and basically any frog.

Once the heavy rains come, the frog will emerge from the ground, ready to breed. The male frogs will move to temporary ponds created by the rains and start to call out to females. The call sounds like a woo. Once the female arrives at the pond, the male glues himself to her back due to his smaller size. Next, the female lays her eggs and the male will fertilize them. Neither parents provide any parental care for their offspring.

Holy Cross Frog
photo by flickr user eyeweed

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Holy Cross Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. The only threats to the species are habitat loss due to farming, climate change, and the introduction of the invasive Cane Toad (Rhinella marina). Researchers have been trying to get the frogs to breed in captivity just in case but have been struggling. Surprisingly, the answer to this problem was a Youtube Clip of a thunderstorm. This clip helps simulate heavy rain storms that gets the frogs in the mood.

Frog of the Week

Paradoxical Frog (Pseudis paradoxa)

Paradoxical Frog
photo by Hans Hillewaert
least concern

Common Name: Paradoxical Frog, Paradox Frog, Shrinking Frog
Scientific Name: Pseudis paradoxa
Family: Hylidae – Tree Frog Family
Locations:  Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela
Size: 1.7 – 3 inches (45 – 75 mm)

The Paradoxical Frog is named after a strange phenomenon during their metamorphosis. Their tadpole is the largest tadpole in the world, almost reaching 10 inches (25 cm) long! That is over three times larger than the length of an adult frog! What a paradox! Yet, not all tadpoles exhibit the paradox. Tadpoles that are born in temporary bodies of water with predators transform quickly and leave the water before they get to massive sizes. In permanent bodies of water, they transform slower, thus allowing more growth time.

The Paradoxical Frog is a member of the Tree Frog family – Hylidae but they are never seen in the trees. They live in and around permanent and temporary ponds. These are the same bodies of water that they breed in. The males will call for the ponds for the females. Once the female arrives, the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female will start laying her eggs and the male will fertilize them. The eggs are laid in the vegetation near the shore. Neither parent provides any parental care.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Paradoxical Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a wide spread range and are common throughout it. Some populations are facing declines due to habit loss due to urban development and agriculture.

Frog of the Week

Magdalena Giant Glass Frog (Ikakogi tayrona)

Common Name: Magdalena Giant Glass Frog
Scientific Name: Ikakogi tayrona
Family: Centrolenidae – Glass Frog family
Locations: Colombia
Size: 1.2 inches (28 mm)

The Magdalena Giant Glass Frog is found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range in the Magdalena department of Colombia, at altitudes up to a mile (1790 meters) high. They are an arboreal species of frog, living up in the trees. During the day, the frogs will hide on the back of leaves, camouflaging in with their translucent skin. Glass Frogs are really small, so even a frog reaching not even 1.5 inches long is considered gigantic.

The males of the species will mark out territory in leaves over hanging a stream. They will fight other males that enter their territory. The males even have humeral spines on their arms that they use to fight the other males. Eventually, the males will start calling for the females. Once the females arrive, the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female will lay her eggs on the leaves and the male will fertilize them.

The Magdalena Giant Glass Frog is the only known Glass Frog known that females will provide parental care for their offspring. In the other species, parental care is either provided by the male or not at all. The females will brood the eggs, protecting the eggs from predators and keeping them hydrated. Eventually, the eggs will hatch and the tadpoles will fall into the stream.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Magdalena Giant Glass Frog as Vulnerable to Extinction. They are found only in a small area where habitat destruction is an increasing problem.