The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List has assessed the Mountain Mist Frog as Extinct earlier this month. The frog lived in northeastern Australia in the streams of their rain forests. Sadly, the frog hasn’t been seen since the 1990s. There are a couple reasons for its extinction including Chytrid Fungus, a deadly fungal disease, habitat loss, and climate change. Biggest reason I believe is because the people in power just don’t give a fuck.
Veragua Stubfoot Toad (Atelopus cruciger)
Common English Name: Veragua Stubfoot Toad and Rancho Grande Harlequin Frog
Local Name: Sapito Rayado
Scientific Name: Atelopus cruciger
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad family
Male Size: 1.1 – 1.3 inches (28.2–34.6 mm)
Female Size: 1.5 – 2 inches (39.5–49.9 mm)
The toads mate during the dry season, where they can be found on rocks and vegetation near fast moving streams. The males call out for the females and when the females arrive, the male grabs her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female carries the male over to the stream. Amplexus can last up to 19 days for the species. Next, the female lays her eggs and the male fertilizes them. The female lays between 150 – 270 eggs in several clutches. The eggs hatch into tadpoles that use their abdominal suckers to attach to rocks in the fast moving stream.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assesses the Veragua Stubfoot Toad as Critically Endangered. The toads have disappeared from nearly all of its range. The culprit is Chytrid Fungus, a deadly fungal pathogen. Luckily, a few populations of the toad remain in some national parks and are surviving against the disease.
Growling Grass Frog (Litoria raniformis)
Common Name: Growling Grass Frog, Southern Bell Frog, Green and Gold Frog, and Warty Swamp Frog
Scientific Name: Litoria raniformis
Family: Hylidae – Tree Frog family
Locations: Australia and Tasmania
Introduced Locations: New Zealand
Size: 4 inches (10 cm)
The Growling Grass Frog lives along marshes, ponds, and dams in southeastern Australia and northern Tasmania. They have been introduced to New Zealand, where they have spread across the island. Due to the frog’s size, they are problematic to the native fauna of New Zealand. The frog gets its name from the growling sounds it makes. The name changes depending on their location, most often being called the Southern Bell Frog.
The males call from spring into summer (August to February) with the peaks from September to December. They hope to attract the females to the ponds. Once a female arrives, the male grasps her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female lays her eggs and the male fertilizes them. The female frog lay up to 400 eggs. Neither parent provides any care for their offspring. The tadpoles take 3 – 16 months to hatch, depending on location.
Growling Grass Frog Conservation
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Growling Grass Frog as Endangered. There are numerous reasons for the decline of the frog. Some blame the introduction of non-native fish such as Mosquitofish and carp, that feast upon the frog’s eggs. Another threat to looms over the frogs is Chytrid Fungus, a deadly fungal disease. The disease has been found in populations of the Growling Grass Frog. Lastly, the destruction of the frog’s habitat is another key to their decline. With all these threats and the lack of support from Australia’s government, its hard to see a future for these frogs.
Golfodulcean Poison Dart Frog (Phyllobates vittatus)
Common Name: Golfodulcean Poison Dart Frog or Golfo Dulce Poison Dart Frog
Scientific Name: Phyllobates vittatus
Family: Dendrobatidae – Poison Dart Frog family
Locations: Costa Rica
Size: females up to 1.2 inches (31 mm); male up to 1 inches (26 mm)
The Golfodulcean Poison Dart Frog lives in the Golfo Dulce region of southwestern Costa Rica. They are a diurnal species of frog, active during the day. Their colors warn predators that the frogs are poisonous. Just like most Poison Dart Frogs, they accumulate their poison from the ants they eat. Therefore, in captivity, the frogs lose their toxins. They are common in the pet trade. If you are thinking about getting a pet frog, make sure to read my article Preparing for a Pet Frog or Toad. Its very informative.
Females are able to lay a clutch of eggs every week or two. The clutches usually contain between 7 to 21 eggs. The female lays her clutches on leaves of plants and the male watches over them. He will even pee on the eggs to keep them from drying out. Once the eggs hatch, the male carries the tadpoles on his back to small ponds for them to develop further.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Golfodulcean Poison Dart Frog as Vulnerable to Extinction. They live in a small, severly fragmented area. Their habitat area is threatened by deforestation to make room for agriculture and tree plantations. Also, gold mining threatens their water.
White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog (Leptodactylus fragilis)
Common Name: White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog, Mexican White-Lipped Frog, and American White-Lipped Frog
Scientific Name: Leptodactylus fragilis
Location: United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela
US Locations: Texas
Introduced Locations: Cuba
Size: 1.2 – 2 inches (3 – 5 cm)
The White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog lives in a variety of habitats from savannahs to montane tropical forests. The frogs are often referred to as the Mexican White-Lipped Frog but they are found in a lot more places than just Mexico. Therefore, the name isn’t really fitting imo. The frogs feed on invertebrates such as spiders and beetles, mainly during the night, making them nocturnal.
The White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog breeds in spring following heavy rains. The males dig out a breeding spot under rocks or logs for mating. Next, he calls out for females in hopes of finding a mate. Once he finds the mate, he grasps her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the male and female create a foamy nest made out of their secretions to house the eggs. The female lays between 20 and 250 egg. Neither parent provides any further care for the offspring. The nest keeps the eggs from drying out until the rains arrive. The rains fill the burrow and break the tadpoles out of the eggs. Then, the tadpoles taken under a month to turn into frogs.
White-lipped Thin-toed Frog Conservation
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the White-lipped Thin-Toed Frog as Least Concern for Extinction. They have a wide range, reaching from the top of Texas down into the northern parts of South America. The frogs are also thought to be abundant throughout the range.
Recently, scientists discovered the frog in Cuba, a place where they are not naturally found. Scientists and conservationists are worried about the effects these frogs can have on the native wildlife and frog populations of Cuba. Researchers believe that the frog can become invasive in Cuba if left unchecked.
Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog (Epipedobates anthonyi)
Common Name: Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog or Anthony’s Poison Arrow Frog
Scientific Name: Epipedobates anthonyi
Family: Dendrobatidae – Poison Dart Frog family
Locations: Ecuador and Peru
Size: 0.75 – 0.96 inches (19 – 24.5mm)
The Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog lives in equatorial dry forest and montane forest on the western slopes of the Andes. They are diurnal, active during the day, thanks to their poisons scaring off predators. Predators able to tell they are poisonous due to their bright colors.
Mating takes place during the wet season. The males call out to attract the females to the territory the male guards. Once the female arrives, the male grasps the female around the head (cephalic amplexus). Then, the female lays her eggs in leaf litter and the male fertilizes them. The female lays between 15 – 40 eggs. After mating, the males protect the eggs until they hatch. Once the eggs hatch into tadpoles, the male carries them on his back to pools of water or streams. There, the tadpoles complete their metamorphosis.
The Anthony’s Poison Arrow Frog is found in the pet trade. The frogs are not poisonous in captivity due to the frogs accumulating their poison from the ants and termites they eat. If you want to buy an Anthony’s Poison Arrow Frog as a pet, make sure to buy a captive bred frog due to their conservation state. Also, read my article – Preparing for a Pet Frog or Toad to see how to get ready for one.
Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog Conservation
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Anthony’s Poison Dart Frog as Near Threatened with Extinction. The frog has a pretty small range that is threatened with habitat destruction. Luckily, the population is still abundant in some parts of their range. The frogs have also been adapting to life surrounding plantations and farms.
Limosa Harlequin Frog (Atelopus limosus)
Common Name: Limosa Harlequin Frog
Scientific Name: Atelopus limosus
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad family
Size: 1 – 1.6 inches (26.5 – 40.2 mm)
The Limosa Harlequin Frog lives amongst slopes of rocky streams in the forests of central Panama. Their bright colors warn predators of their toxicity, allowing them to be active during the day. There are two different morphs of the species. The lowland morph has a brown color with yellow fingertips. Meanwhile, the highland morph is green and yellow with a black V on its back. The females generally have a red / orange colored belly.
Limosa Harlequin Frog Conservation
The Harlequin Frogs(Atelopus) are one of the most endangered group of frogs in the world and sadly, the Limosa Harlequin Frog doesn’t fair any better. Additionally, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List classifies the frog as Critically Endangered. It is estimated that 80% of the population will die off One of the main reason for the declines is the invasive fungal pathogen Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). This pathogen causes the skin of the frog to harden. Due to frogs only breathing through their skin, this causes them to suffocate and die. The loss of habitat for urban development and farms is another reason for the declines. At last, pollution from gold mining isn’t helping either.
To help ensure that the Limosa Harlequin Frog survives, researchers at the Smithsonian Institute and the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project have taken some of the frogs into captivity. They are raising frogs and tadpoles to release into the wild as well as keeping an emergency group in place.
Last Known Loa Water Frogs Reproduce!
The Loa Water Frog (Telmatobius dankoi) is a critically endangered frog from Chile. They are found only in 1 location, Las Cascadas along the Loa River. Sadly, the river has become inhabitable for the frogs. The river had dried up to illegal extraction of water for mining, agriculture, and urban development.
Last year in 2010, the last known Loa Water Frogs were taken from the wild to be kept safe in captivity. Unfortunately, there was only 14 frogs left. The frogs were flown to the National Zoo of Chile. The frogs arrived malnourished and unfortunately, 2 of them died. The other 12 are in great shape.
Lately, the researchers started to notice the female frogs gain weight and the male’s skins changing. Then, the female frogs laid eggs, a first for the species in captivity! The eggs then hatched into tadpoles! A total of 200 tadpoles of the Loa Water Frog hatched. Now, the zoo has the challenge of raising these tadpoles in hopes of saving the species.
Magdalena Giant Glass Frog (Ikakogi tayrona)
Common Name: Magdalena Giant Glass Frog
Scientific Name: Ikakogi tayrona
Family: Centrolenidae – Glass Frog family
Size: 1.2 inches (28 mm)
The Magdalena Giant Glass Frog is found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range in the Magdalena department of Colombia, at altitudes up to a mile (1790 meters) high. They are an arboreal species of frog, living up in the trees. During the day, the frogs will hide on the back of leaves, camouflaging in with their translucent skin. Glass Frogs are really small, so even a frog reaching not even 1.5 inches long is considered gigantic.
The males of the species will mark out territory in leaves over hanging a stream. They will fight other males that enter their territory. The males even have humeral spines on their arms that they use to fight the other males. Eventually, the males will start calling for the females. Once the females arrive, the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female will lay her eggs on the leaves and the male will fertilize them.
The Magdalena Giant Glass Frog is the only known Glass Frog known that females will provide parental care for their offspring. In the other species, parental care is either provided by the male or not at all. The females will brood the eggs, protecting the eggs from predators and keeping them hydrated. Eventually, the eggs will hatch and the tadpoles will fall into the stream.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Magdalena Giant Glass Frog as Vulnerable to Extinction. They are found only in a small area where habitat destruction is an increasing problem.
Crab-eating Frog (Fejervarya cancrivora)
Common Name: Crab-eating Frog, Mangrove Frog, Asian Brackish Frog, and Crab-eating Grassfrog
Scientific Name: Fejervarya cancrivora
Family: Dicroglossidae – Forked Tongued Frog family
Locations: Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Introduced Locations: Guam and Papua New Guinea
Size: 3.1 inches (80 mm) for females, 2.75 inches (70 mm) for males
The Crab-eating Frog is thought to be the most salt tolerant amphibians in the entire world. They are able to survive in brackish waters for extended periods of time and briefly survive swimming in salt water. With this species talent, they are able to feast upon crabs and other small crustaceans, hence their name. They are found along the shorelines, mangrove forests, and inland wetlands.
Reproduction for the frogs is pretty standard. They can breed year round but most activity is at the start of the wet season. At the start, the males will call for the females from a water body. Once the female arrives, the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus positiion. Then, female will lay her eggs and the male will then fertilize them. Neither parent will provide any parental care for the offspring. The eggs will hatch into tadpoles that transform later into frogs.
The Crab-Eating Frog is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List as Least Concern of becoming Extinct. The frog has a wide range and is plentiful throughout it. They especially thrive in rice paddy fields. Potential threats to the survive of the frogs is the habitat destruction and over harvesting the frogs for food.