Frog of the Week

Magdalena Giant Glass Frog (Ikakogi tayrona)

Common Name: Magdalena Giant Glass Frog
Scientific Name: Ikakogi tayrona
Family: Centrolenidae – Glass Frog family
Locations: Colombia
Size: 1.2 inches (28 mm)

The Magdalena Giant Glass Frog is found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range in the Magdalena department of Colombia, at altitudes up to a mile (1790 meters) high. They are an arboreal species of frog, living up in the trees. During the day, the frogs will hide on the back of leaves, camouflaging in with their translucent skin. Glass Frogs are really small, so even a frog reaching not even 1.5 inches long is considered gigantic.

The males of the species will mark out territory in leaves over hanging a stream. They will fight other males that enter their territory. The males even have humeral spines on their arms that they use to fight the other males. Eventually, the males will start calling for the females. Once the females arrive, the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female will lay her eggs on the leaves and the male will fertilize them.

The Magdalena Giant Glass Frog is the only known Glass Frog known that females will provide parental care for their offspring. In the other species, parental care is either provided by the male or not at all. The females will brood the eggs, protecting the eggs from predators and keeping them hydrated. Eventually, the eggs will hatch and the tadpoles will fall into the stream.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List categorizes the Magdalena Giant Glass Frog as Vulnerable to Extinction. They are found only in a small area where habitat destruction is an increasing problem.

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Crab-eating Frog (Fejervarya cancrivora)

photo by W.A. Djatmiko

Common Name: Crab-eating Frog, Mangrove Frog, Asian Brackish Frog, and Crab-eating Grassfrog
Scientific Name: Fejervarya cancrivora
Family: Dicroglossidae – Forked Tongued Frog family
Locations:  Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Introduced Locations: Guam and Papua New Guinea
Size: 3.1 inches (80 mm) for females, 2.75 inches (70 mm) for males

The Crab-eating Frog is thought to be the most salt tolerant amphibians in the entire world. They are able to survive in brackish waters for extended periods of time and briefly survive swimming in salt water. With this species talent, they are able to feast upon crabs and other small crustaceans, hence their name. They are found along the shorelines, mangrove forests, and inland wetlands.

Reproduction for the frogs is pretty standard. They can breed year round but most activity is at the start of the wet season. At the start, the males will call for the females from a water body. Once the female arrives, the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus positiion. Then, female will lay her eggs and the male will then fertilize them. Neither parent will provide any parental care for the offspring. The eggs will hatch into tadpoles that transform later into frogs.

The Crab-Eating Frog is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List as Least Concern of becoming Extinct. The frog has a wide range and is plentiful throughout it. They especially thrive in rice paddy fields. Potential threats to the survive of the frogs is the habitat destruction and over harvesting the frogs for food.

Frog of the Week

Tarahumara Frog (Rana tarahumarae)

Tarahumara Frog
photo by Jim Rorabaugh of USFWS

Common Name: Tarahumara Frog
Scientific Name: Rana tarahumarae
Family: Ranidae – True Frog family
Locations: United States and Mexico
US Locations: Arizona
Size: 2.5 – 4 inches (64 – 102 mm)

The Tarahumara Frog is found in the montane canyons of southern Arizona and down into Mexico. Their main habitat is rocky streams and plunge pools. They breed in these permanent bodies of water from April to May. The male frog will call out to the females though they lack vocal sacs like other frogs have. The female will arrive and the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus position. Then, the female will lay her eggs and the male will fertilize them. Females can lay up to 2200 eggs at a time. Neither parent will provide any parental care for their offspring. The tadpoles can take over 2 years to complete their metamorphosis.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red Lists categorizes the Tarahumara Frog as Vulnerable to Extinction. The frog is extinct in Arizona and is steadily disappearing from Mexico. Chytrid Fungus, a deadly disease, is believed to have caused large die offs of the frogs. Other reasons for the declines in their numbers include invasive species, pollution, and habitat destruction. Invasive species, such as the Blue Gill and American Bullfrog, feast upon the frog and their tadpoles. Much of the range of the Tarahumara Frog in Arizona has been taken over by Bullfrogs.

There are currently projects working to reintroduce the frogs into Arizona. The first reintroduction was done in 2004. All of the frogs sadly died out over the next 10 years due to Chytrid Fungus and flooding. In 2012 and 2013, frogs and tadpoles were once again reintroduced but a die off happened due to chytrid fungus again. There’s still hope enough survived to continue the population. More plans for reintroduction are being considered.

Frog of the Week

Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog (Rana boylii)

photo by William Flaxington

Common Name: Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog
Scientific Name: Rana boylii
Family: Ranidae – True Frog family
Locations: United States
US Locations: California and Oregon
Size: 1.5 – 3.2 inches ( 3.8 – 8.1 cm)

The Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog is known for the yellow markings on the underside of their legs and extends to their belly. They live along the streams in the mountains of California and Oregon.

The breeding season starts at the end of March and continues to the end of May. Mating takes place in streams and rivers instead of the usual ponds and lakes that other frogs use. The males will call underwater to try to attract females. They do occasionally call above the water. Once the female selects a male, the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus position. The female will lay between 300 – 2000 eggs, averaging around 900, and the male will then fertilize them.

Neither parent provides any parental care. The eggs hatch between 5 – 37 days days and the tadpoles transform between 3 and 4 months.Breeding end of March to start of May, streams rivers, males call underwater, 300 – 2,000, averaging 900. transform 3-4 months, hatch 5 – 37 days, typical breeding

The Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog is a candidate for the United States’ Endangered Species List and is already listed on the state of California’s Endangered Species List. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List also lists them as Near Threatened. The frogs have disappeared from almost 45% of its range. Numerous different things have affected the frog’s populations. The large, introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) feast upon any smaller frog than it, including the Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog. Introduced trout Pesticide use has decreased population numbers. Dams have altered the habitat that they call home.

Frog of the Week

Green and Golden Bell Frog (Litoria aurea)

photo by LiquidGhoul

Common Name: Green and Golden Bell Frog
Scientific Name: Litoria aurea
Family: Hylidae – True Frog family
Locations: Australia
Introduced Locations: New Caledonia, New Zealand, and Vanuatu
Male Size: 2.2 – 2.7 inches (57 – 69 mm)
Female Size: 2.5 – 4.2 inches (65 – 108 mm)

While the Green and Golden Bell Frog is a member of the tree frog family, they are a semi-aquatic species of frog. They like to perch on vegetation around water. The frogs breed during summer time from October through March. Reproduction is pretty standard for these fellas. The males will call from the water and the female will select a mate. Then the male will grasp her from behind in the amplexus position and she will lay her eggs. The female frog lays between 3 – 10 thousand eggs. The male will then fertilize the eggs. Neither parent provides any care for their offspring.

The Green and Golden Bell Frog is naturally found along the southeastern coast of Australia but has expanded its range to other Pacific Islands including New Zealand. In New Zealand, they are found on the northern half of North Island. It’s hard to tell if these frogs are causing any problems in these new habitats.

The Green and Golden Bell Frog is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The frogs face a variety of threats. The wetlands that the frogs live in are being drained to make room for more houses. The Mosquito Fish (Gambusia holbrooki) has been introduced to the wetlands as well to control mosquito populations. Sadly, these fish also feed on tadpoles of frogs. Also Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) has been introduced to Australia and they can feed on adult frogs. Chytrid Fungus, a deadly fungal pathogen that is devasting frog populations around the world, has been found in the frogs. This is likely causing some declines in the species.

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Smooth Newt (Lissotriton vulgaris)

photo by John Beniston

Common Name: Smooth Newt
Scientific Name: Lissotriton vulgaris
Family: Salamandridae
Locations: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and United Kingdom
Introduced Locations Australia
Size: 3.9 inches (10 cm)

The Smooth Newt is one of the most common amphibians found throughout temperate, forest areas in Europe. They are mostly terrestrial, only staying in water for extended periods of time during breeding season. They are also nocturnal, spending their days under logs and rocks. The newts do come out during rains during the day.

The Smooth Newt reproduces after the newt wake up from hibernation. The males and females move to ponds to breed. The males will grow out a wavy crest on their back to impress the females. The male will do a courtship dance to attract females. The males will deposit a sperm packet in the water and will lead a female over it during the courtship. The female will pick it up with her cloaca and bring it inside her to fertilize her eggs. A few days layer, the female will lay her eggs, as many as 300. Eggs hatch a few weeks later and larvae will appear. The larvae take a few months to complete their metamorphism, but some individuals may take over a year. These individuals will then have to survive in the water over winter.

In Australia, the Smooth Newt has established populations in the wild. It is believed the newts were released into the wild from a pet owner who didn’t want them anymore. Never do that please. Currently, it is not known if the newt is causing any serious environmental problems so the Australian Government isn’t actively trying to prevent their spread or eliminate them.

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Dixie Valley Toad (Anaxyrus williamsi)

photo by Kris Urquhart/USFWS

Common Name: Dixie Valley Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus williamsi
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad family
Locations: United States – Nevada
Size: 2 inches (50.8 mm)

The Dixie Valley Toad is a relatively new species, only being described in 2017. Before, it was considered an isolated population of the Western Toad (Anaxyrus boreas). Physical and genetic tests revealed that it was in fact, its own species. Dixie Valley Toad is physically different than the Western Toad. They have gold specks on its body and is smaller than the Western Toad.

Most life history of the Dixie Valley Toad is presumed to be similar to the Western Toad. They are a nocturnal species, living under rocks or burrowed in the dirt during the day. Reproduction is external. The males will call to attract females. Once the female selects a male, the male will grasp the female from behind. The female will then lay her eggs and the male will fertilize them. No parental care has been shown.

While only just described, the toad is already a candidate for the Endangered Species List. The exact number of toads are unknown but their range is small. Their habitat is already threatened by a geothermal energy plant that has plans to go up right next to it.

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Chile Mountains False Toad (Telmatobufo venustus)

photo by wikiuser Cipsdesign 
Conservation status is Endangered

Common Name: Chile Mountains False Toad
Scientific Name: Telmatobufo venustus
Family: Calyptocephalellidae
Locations: Chile
Size: 2.8 inches (71 mm)

The Chile Mountains False Toad gets its name from its large, oval paratoid glands that make it look like a toad. They are found along the western slopes of the Chilean Andes, living up to a mile ( 1,700 metres) above sea level. There are only three known locations of the frogs. The frogs are found along rocks surrounding streams.

The Chile Mountains False Toad is listed as Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Much of its habitat has been converted into pine and eucalyptus plantations. Electric dams have been built in parts that haven’t been converted. Also trouts have been introduced into water bodies that the frogs live in. These trouts eat the frogs and their tadpoles. The only stable populations of the frog are found in the Altos de Lircay National Reserve. Better protection of the frog and their habitat is needed to save them.

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How to Help Stop Invasive Species

With the spread of invasive species, you have to wonder what can I do to help stop them? I will help answer this today.

Clean Your Boots / Shoes / Hiking Gear

Invasive species can hitchhike around the world on your gear and shoes. It is thought that Chytrid Fungus, a deadly disease that is killing off many frog species, is thought to have been moved around from researchers not cleaning their shoes / gear off between field trips. Cleaning off your gear and shoes can help stop invasive species. Also washing your dog off after hiking helps stop the spread of invasive species.

Clean Your Boat

Once again, invasive species, such as Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), can hitchhike from lake to lake on your boat. Cleaning the outside of your boat when you take it out of the water and draining all the water out is needed to help stop the spread.

Don’t Release Your Pets into the Wild

This is probably the easiest way to stop the spread of invasive species is to not release them into the wild. Some pet species, such as the Red Lion Fish (Pterois volitans) or the Burmese Python (Python bivittatus), have overtaken native populations of animals and are causing population declines. This is why it is very important to not release your pets.

Don’t Move Firewood

Invasive species, such as the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis), can hide in firewood and be transported into a new environment. Please buy firewood close to your campsites to help stop the spread.

Join an Invasive Species Removal Event

Sometimes you gotta roll up your sleeves and take the trash out yourself. Nature Centers often host invasive species removal events that you can volunteer at. They will help you learn how to identify invasive species and how to remove them properly. You can then take this knowledge with you back to your home.

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Invasive Species Week

It is National Invasive Species Week! The week was created to raise awareness for the problems that invasive species create. What is an invasive species? It is a non-native living organism that has been introduced to a new environment by humans that is likely to cause economic harm, environmental harm or harm to human health. Invasive species can be fish, plants, insects, fungus, bacteria, and everything in between.

This week I will highlight invasive species that are causing problems, mostly for amphibians, here and on my social media accounts. Please stay tuned for more!