Frog of the Week

Granular Poison Frog (Oophaga granulifera)

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photo by Patrick Gijsbers
vulnerable


Common Name: Granular Poison Frog
Scientific Name: Oophaga granulifera
Family: Dendrobatidae – Poison Dart Frog family
Locations: Costa Rica and Panama
Size: .7 – .8 inches (18-22 mm)

The Granular Poison Frog is a diurnal (active during the day) species of frog. They are able to get away with being so visible to do their aposematic coloration that warn predators that they are poisonous. The males of the species are highly territorial in regards to their calling and breeding sites, even attacking other males. The frogs breed during the rainy season when the males will call out for the females. The females will then approach and the male leads her back to his breeding site. After breeding, the males will brood the eggs and keep them moist. After the eggs hatch, the females transport the tadpoles on their back to a water-filled plant. The females will then lay unfertilized eggs for the tadpoles to feed on. The genus Oophaga, which they are part of, translates to egg eaters due to this characteristic of their reproductive cycle.

The Granular Poison Frog is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List due to habitat destruction and habitat fragmentation. They live in humid lowland forests that are threatened by logging, agriculture, and expanding urbanization. Better protections in these areas are needed to protect these species.

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Frog of the Week

Northern Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora)

photo by Walter Siegmund

least concern
Common Name: Northern Red-legged Frog
Scientific Name: Rana aurora
Family: Ranidae
Locations: Canada and the United States
US Locations: Alaska, California, Oregon, and Washington
Size: 3.3 inches

The Northern Red-legged Frog is found along the western coast of North America. They breed from January to March depending on how far north they are located. Farther north they are, the later they breed. Egg masses from the frogs number between 300 and 5000 eggs. Eggs hatch in about a week into tadpoles. The tadpoles take 3 to 7 months to fully undergo metamorphosis. Some of the tadpoles take until the next spring to turn into frogs. Adult frogs can live up to 10 years.

Frog of the Week

Cuban Tree Frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis)

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photo by Munkel
leastconcern


Common Name: Cuban Tree Frog
Scientific Name: Osteopilus septentrionalis
Family: Hylidae – Tree Frog Family
Locations: Bahamas, Cayman Islands, and Cuba
Introduced Locations: Anguilla, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States (Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas), British Virgin Islands, and US Virgin Islands.
Size: 3 to 5.5 inches (76.2 – 139.7 mm)

The Cuban Tree Frog is a large tree frog native to the Caribbean, but they have been introduced to other areas of the world such as Florida. They are the largest tree frog found in the United States. In Florida, the Cuban Tree Frog has become a problem. Their large size allows them to eat other smaller frogs and other native animals. They also can produce skin secretions that can irritate humans.

Cuban Tree Frogs are incredible breeders. They can breed year round but usually between May to October following warm rains. The frogs breed in any shallow, fish-less body of water. Females of the species can lay between 100 to 1000 eggs at a time. It only takes the tadpoles 3 to 8 weeks to complete their metamorphosis. This allows them to easily take over new areas.

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Frog of the Week

Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

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Common Toad – photo from https://www.sharpphotography.co.uk/

leastconcern
Common Name: Common Toad
Scientific Name: Bufo bufo
Family: Bufonidae – True Toad Family
Location: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and United Kingdom
Size: 6 inches

The Common Toad is found almost everywhere in Europe besides on some islands such as Iceland and Ireland. The Common Toad is kind of your standard toad. They are highly terrestrial besides during breeding season where they migrate to ponds to breed. Breeding usually takes place in spring when the toads wake up from hibernation.

Frog of the Week

Túngara Frog (Engystomops pustulosus)

photo by Brian Gratwicke

leastconcern
Common Name: Túngara Frog
Scientific Name: Engystomops pustulosus
Family: Leptodactylidae
Location: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago,  and Venezuela
Size: 1.4 inches or 35 mm

The Túngara Frog is found throughout all of Central America down to South America. The frog is often studied because of their complex mate selection. Females don’t always select the “best” mate choice. You can read more in this article.

Túngara Frogs breed year round in whatever body of water they can find. Males call to the females while floating in these bodies of water. Once the female selects a mate, they move close to shore and make a lay their eggs in a foam nest that they make. These foam nests help protect the eggs from drying out.

 

Frog of the Week

Smoky Jungle Frog (Leptodactylus pentadactylus)

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leastconcern

Common Name: Smoky Jungle Frog
Scientific Name: Leptodactylus pentadactylus
Family: Leptodactylidae
Location: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, and Suriname
Size: 7.2 inches / 185 mm

The Smoky Jungle Frog is one of the largest frogs in the world, with females reaching over 7 inches long while males are slightly smaller. The frogs have a long life span that can reach over 15 years.

Mating takes place during the rainy months. Females form foam nests that the eggs are laid into to protect them from the environment. Not all eggs are fertilized, when the tadpoles emerge, they eat the unfertilized eggs.

The super power of the Smoky Jungle Frog is its anti predator defense system where its able to secrete vast amounts of mucus when attacked. Besides the mucus being gross,  it is also toxic so any predator won’t want to eat them.