Frog of the Week

Mexican Burrowing Toad (Rhinophrynus dorsalis)

Mexican Burrowing Toad
Mexican Burrowing Toad – photo by Vicente Mata-Silva

Common Name: Mexican Burrowing Toad
Scientific Name: Rhinophrynus dorsalis
Family: Rhinophrynidae
Country Location: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and the United States
United States Locations: Texas
Size: 3.1 inches or 8 cm

The Mexico Burrowing Toad is most evolutionary distinct species of frogs with over 190 million years of independent evolution. It is believed that the a fruit bat, polar bear, killer whale, kangaroo and human are more similar than the Mexican Burrowing Toad to any other frog. It is the only living species in the family Rhinophyrnidae, while the rest of them died out millions of years ago.

As their name says, they are burrowing toads that live underground during the dry season. They have several adaptations to their underground life. They have strong hind legs with tubercles to help them with digging.  Their weird nose helps them eating termites, their primary food. During the wet season, the toad emerges from their burrows to breed. The males call in pools of water trying to attract mates. Once the female selects their mate, the male embraces her and grasps her around the waist (inguinal amplexus). They will lay their eggs and then leave the water body, letting their offspring fend for themselves. The eggs don’t take long to hatch and the tadpoles complete their metamorphism in one to three months.

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