Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Indiana

Frogs and Toads of Indiana

Indiana has a great mix of different species of frogs and toads.

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica)

The Wood Frog is very distinct frog. It has a dark “racoon” like mask around its eyes and its brownish color.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

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Green Frog (Rana clamitans)

The Green Frog and American Bullfrog looks the same but the Bullfrog can grow larger and they lack a dorsal ridge down their back.

The Crawfish Frog gets its name from living in crawfish holes. Its has skin folds on the side and a small typanum. It also has a pair of vocal sacs for calling.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

The Southern Leopard Frog has a white spot on its tympanum which can help differentiate the species from the other two. The Plains Leopard Frog is different from the Southern and Northern Leopard Frog because of its dorsal ridge. The Plains Leopard Frogs has a break and an indent near its butt while the North and South Leopard Frog just has a straight line.

Pickeral Frog looks like the leopard frogs but its spots are more rectangular than the leopard frogs.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

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Cope’s Gray Tree Frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) and Eastern Gray Tree Frog (Hyla versicolor)

Cope’s Gray Tree Frog and the Eastern Gray Tree Frog are identical besides their calls.

Here is a video of some male Eastern Gray Tree Frog calling

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Green Tree Frog (Hyla cinerea)

The Green and Gray Tree Frogs can be confused. The Gray Tree Frogs can also be green in color. Green Tree Frogs have a white line down their mouth.

There is only one cricket frog in Indiana. Cricket Frogs don’t have any distinct markings on their body.

The Western Chorus Frog has three lines that run down their back. They are a tiny species of frog, not even reaching 2 inches long.

The Spring Peeper is another small species of frog and looks similar to the Western Chorus Frog but it has a X shaped mark on its back.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

Indiana has only two species of true toads – the Fowler’s Toad and the American Toad. They look very much a like but there are some differences in the back of the head.

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American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad’s parotid gland is separated from the craniel crest while the Fowler’s Toad’s touches.

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Spadefoot Toad Family – Scaphiopodidae

The Eastern Spadefoot toad is the only spadefoot toad in the state. Look for a spade on its rear legs to identify it.

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Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Illinois

Frogs and Toads of Illinois

Are you looking to identify a specific frog? Check out my page on Frog Identification.

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

The True Frogs are your typical frogs that you find along the shores of a lake or pond.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

The American Bullfrog is the largest native frog in the United States. There is no dorsal ridge that runs down its back on the American Bullfrog. This is the distinguishable characteristics of the frog.

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Green Frog (Rana clamitans)

The Green Frog looks very much like the American Bullfrog but it’s a tad smaller. It has a dorsal ridge that runs down its back but they are incomplete and do not reach all the way.

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Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica)

The Wood Frog is one of the most widespread frog in the United States but it’s a little rare in Illinois. It’s listed by the states as a Species in Greatest Need of Conservation. It’s fairly easy to distinguish because of it’s mask around it’s eyes.

The Crawfish Frog gets its name from living in crawfish holes. Its has skin folds on the side and a small typanum. It also has a pair of vocal sacs for calling.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

The Southern Leopard Frog has a white spot on its tympanum which can help differentiate the species from the other two. The Plains Leopard Frog is different from the Southern and Northern Leopard Frog because of its dorsal ridge. The Plains Leopard Frogs has a break and an indent near its butt while the North and South Leopard Frog just has a straight line.

Pickeral Frog looks like the leopard frogs but its spots are more rectangular than the leopard frogs.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Cricket Frogs – Acris

The Northern Cricket Frog is the only cricket frog in the state. Its skin is relatively more rough than the other tree frogs in the state. It also has no distinct markings.

Tree Frogs – Hyla

Eastern Gray Tree Frog and Cope’s Gray Tree Frog (Hyla chrysoscelis)

These two frogs are identical besides their calls and chromosome numbers. Note that Gray Tree Frogs are not always gray and can be green. They have yellow or orange coloration on their back legs which is nice to identify them.

Here is a short video of a few Eastern Gray Tree Frog calling

Bird-voiced Tree Frog (Hyla avivoca)

The Cope’s Gray Tree Frog, the Eastern Gray Tree Frog and the Bird-Voiced Frog look very much a like. The difference is the coloration on the inner thigh. Cope’s Gray Tree Frog and Gray Tree Frog has brighter orange color on the thigh while the Bird-Voiced Frog is more greenish-yellow.

Green Tree Frog (Hyla cinerea)

The Green Tree Frog does not have any coloration on its inner legs. It has a white line that runs down its side.

Chorus Frogs – Pseudacris

The Spring Peeper is a notoriously loud frog and one of the first signs of spring. It has a noticeable X marking on its back.

The Boreal Chorus Frog is found throughout the state besides the southern tip. The middle stripe on its back is occasionally broken. It also has really small legs.

The Western Chorus Frog is found in the Southern half of the state. The three stripes on its back are rarely broken.

The Upland Chorus Frog is found on the southern tip of the state. The stripes on it’s back are often broken up and can appear as spots.

Illinois Chorus Frog (Pseudacris illinoensis) 

The Illinois Chorus Frog does not have a white line that extends off the lips while the other chorus frogs do.

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Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

The family Bufonidae is known for the toxins / poison they produce called Bufotoxins. It is a bad idea to try to eat these guys.

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American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad and Fowler’s Toad look fairly similar. The Fowler’s Toad has their cranial crest and the parotoid gland touch while the American Toad’s cranial crest and parotoid gland do not touch or are connected by a spur. The American Toad has a more speckled belly while the Fowler’s Toad has a clear, white one.

Spadefoot Toads – Scaphiopodidae

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Eastern Spadefoot Toad (Scaphiopus holbrookii) 

The Eastern Spadefoot Toad is the only Spadefoot toad in the state so it can easily be identified because of the spade on its back legs.

Narrowed Mouth Toad Family – Microhylidae

The Eastern Narrow Mouthed Toad is the only narrow mouthed toad in the state. One could potentially misidentify it has a Spadefoot toad because of its burrowing lifestyle but the head is narrower and there’s no spade on the back feet.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Iowa

Frogs and Toads of Iowa

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

The Crawfish Frog gets its name from living in crawfish holes. Its has skin folds on the side and a small tympanum. It also has a pair of vocal sacs for calling.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

The Southern Leopard Frog has a white spot on its tympanum which can help differentiate the species from the other two. The Plains Leopard Frog is different from the Southern and Northern Leopard Frog because of its dorsal ridge. The Plains Leopard Frogs has a break and an indent near its butt while the North and South Leopard Frog just has a straight line.

Pickeral Frog looks like the leopard frogs but its spots are more rectangular than the leopard frogs.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbiana)

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Green Frog (Rana clamitans)

The Green Frog and American Bullfrog looks the same but the Bullfrog can grow larger and they lack a dorsal ridge down their back.

Tree Frog Family  – Hylidae

The Blanchard’s Cricket Frog is a relatively small frog. It’s skin appears the roughest out of all the tree frogs in the state. It has no distinct markings on it’s body.

The Cope’s Gray Tree Frog and the Gray Tree Frog are nearly identical besides the fact that their calls and chromosome numbers are different. It’s the largest tree frog in the state.

Here is a video of some Eastern Gray Tree Frog males calling that I took.

The Spring Peeper’s call is one of the first signs of spring. Some consider the call to be annoying but I enjoy it. The Spring Peeper has a distinct X on it’s back.

The Boreal Chorus Frog is found throughout the state. It’s a rather small frog that can be distinguished from the other frogs in the state by the 3 lines that run down its back.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

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American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The cranial crest of the American Toad does not touch the toad’s parotoid gland or connects to it with a spur while the other toads in the state have their cranial crest touch their parotoid gland. The American Toad is found throughout the state.

The Great Plains Toad is found in the Northwestern part of the state. It has V shaped cranial crest which is unique for the toads in the state.

The Cranial Crest of the Woodhouse’s Toad do not touch and are opposing L shaped. The toad is found in the western side of state

The Fowler’s Toad is found in the southeastern part of the state which can help with distinguishing it from the Woodhouse’s Toad. It has prominent cranial crests that touch the parotoid gland.

Spadefoot Toad Family – Scaphiopodidae

The Plains Spadefoot Toad is the only spadefoot toad in the state. It is found on the eastern side of the state. It can be identified by the spade on it’s rear legs.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of South Dakota

Frogs and Toads of South Dakota

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

The American Bullfrog is the largest frog in the state. The American Bullfrog lacks a dorsal ridge down its back which makes it easy to identify.

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Wood Frog (Rana slyvatica)

The Wood Frog has a distinct mask around it’s eyes. They are a variety of different colors, from red, brown, and bronze.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

The difference between the Plains Leopard Frog and the Northern Leopard Frog deals with its the dorsal ridge. The Plains Leopard Frog’s dorsal ridge indents near its butt. The Plains Leopard Frog is also only found in the southeastern part of the state.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

The Northern Cricket Frog is found in the Southeastern part of the state. Their skin is relatively rougher compared to the other tree frogs in the skin.

The Gray Tree Frog and Cope’s Gray Tree Frog are nearly identical besides their calls and chromosome numbers. The frogs are found in the eastern part of the state.

The Boreal Chorus frog is a small frog found throughout the state. They have lines that run down their back.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

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American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad is found along the eastern edge of the state. The cranial crest and the parotoid gland of the toad do not touch or they connect with a spur.

The Canadian Toad is found in the north eastern half of the state. Its cranial crest form a boss (bump) in between its eyes.

The Woodhouse’s Toad cranial crest forms opposing L shapes. It is found throughout the state.

Great Plains Toad’s cranial crest forms a V shape. It is found throughout the state.

Spadefoot Toads – Scaphiopodidae

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Plains Spadefoot Toad (Spea bombifrons)

The Plains Spadefoot toad is the only spadefoot toad in the state. Look at the rear foot of the toad and you will find a keratinized spade on it which no other toad or frog in the state has.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Colorado

Frogs and Toads of Colorado

Colorado is blessed to have a great variety of frogs and toads from a few different families.

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

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Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica)

The Wood Frog is easy to identify because of the dark mask on its face. Its found in the north center part of the state.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

The American Bullfrog is the largest native frog in the United States. There is no dorsal ridge that runs down its back on the American Bullfrog. This is the distinguishable characteristics of the frog. It is naturally found in the eastern part of the state but has spread to the western half.

The Plains Leopard Frog is found in the eastern part of the state.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

The Northern Leopard Frog and Plains Leopard Frog appear identical. They both have large spots all over their body. The difference between the frogs lies in their dorsal ridge. The Northern Leopard Frog’s ridge runs straight down the side while the Plains Leopard Frog’s ridge indents near the butt.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

The Canyon Tree Frog has no stripe through eye. Skin is rather rough. It has distinct toe-pads used for climbing

The Boreal Chorus Frog has three lines down back that makes it identifiable.

The Northern Cricket Frog is the only cricket frog in the state. It has no distinct marks.

Toads

True Toad  Family – Bufonidae

The Great Plains Toad has a V shaped cranial crest on their head that make them identifiable.

The Woodhouse’s Toad has opposing L shaped cranial crests that can be used to identify them.

The Western Toad has no cranial crest, but has stripe down the middle of back.

The Green Toad has no cranial crest, no stripe down middle of the back, and has elongated parotoid gland. It is found in the southeast corner of the state.

No cranial crest. No stripe down middle of the back. Parotoid gland is also rather small.

Spadefoot Toad Family – Scaphiopodidae

The Couch’s Spadefoot Toad has a sickle-shaped spade on its rear foot that no other spadefoot toad in the state has. It is found in the southeastern corner of the state.

The Great Basin Spadefoot Toad has a round-shape spade on its rear legs.  It has a glandular boss / bump between its eyes, making it identifiable. It is found in the northwestern part of the state.

The Mexican Spadefoot Toad has a round-shape spade on its rear legs. It does not have a boss / bump between its eyes. Its found in the southern part of the state.

The Plains Spadefoot Toad has a round-shape spade on its rear leg. It has a bony boss / bump between its eyes.

Narrow Mouthed Toad Family – Microhylidae

The Great Plains Narrowed Mouth Toad is the only narrowed mouth toad in the state. It’s not a true toad because it lacks a parotoid gland behind its eye and doesn’t have a keratonized spade on its rear feet.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Wyoming

Frogs and Toads of Wyoming

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

The True Frogs are your typical frogs that you find along the shores of a lake or pond.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

Common Name: American Bullfrog
Scientific Name: Rana catesbeiana
Native Location: Found in the southeastern part of the state around Goshen and Platte counties.
Introduced Location: Introduced populations exist in the western part of the state
Breeding Season: July and August

The American Bullfrog is the largest frog in the state. It lacks a dorsal ridge down it’s back while the other True Frogs have that ridge.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

Common Name: Northern Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana pipiens
Location: Throughout the state
Breeding Season: April to May at low elevations while lasting to June at higher elevations

The Northern Leopard Frog kinda looks like the Columbia Spotted Frog but the spots on the Leopard Frog are much larger and fully colored in.

Common Name: Columbia Spotted Frog
Scientific Name: Rana luteiventris
Location: Western half of the state
Breeding Season: Starts in late May or early June

The Columbia Spotted Frog’s spots are much smaller and irregular than the Leopard Frog’s.

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Wood Frog (Rana sylvaticus)

Common Name: Wood Frog
Scientific Name: Rana sylvaticus
Location:Two populations exist in the Medicine Bow / Snowy Range and the Big Horn Mountains
Breeding Season: Mid June to early July

The Wood frog is the easiest frog to identify in the state. It’s dark mask around it’s eyes is a key give away. The frog varies in color from red, brown, and silver.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

There is only 1 species from the tree frog family in the state – the Boreal Chorus Frog.

Boreal Chorus Frog

Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata)

Common Name: Boreal Chorus Frog
Scientific Name: Pseudacris maculata
Location: Found throughout the state
Breeding Season: Starts mid March and early April at low elevations and after the snow melt at higher elevations

The Boreal Chorus Frog is the only Tree Frog in the Wyoming. Though it is a Tree Frog, it lacks toe pads. It is a small frog, only around a inch long. There are three stripes that run down its back.

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Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

The True Toads are the typical toads that you know. They have warts along their back and parotoid glands behind their eyes. These toads produce toxins so make sure to wash your hands after handling and don’t eat them.

Common Name: Wyoming Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus baxteri
Location: Southern Albany county
Breeding Season:

The Wyoming Toad is a Federally Listed Endangered Species and listed by the IUCN Red List as Extinct in the Wild. The toad can be distinguished from the other toads in the state from it’s parallel cranial crests that sometimes get fused together to form what appears to be one line.

Common Name: Western Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus boreas
Location: Northwestern corner and south central Wyoming
Breeding Season: Spring

The Western Toad lacks a cranial crest or lines that run between the eyes.

Common Name: Woodhouse’s Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus woodhousi
Location: Eastern half of the state
Breeding Season: Spring

The Woodhouse’s Toad cranial crests do not touch, creating opposing L shapes.

Common Name: Great Plains Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus cognatus
Location: Northeastern corner of the state
Breeding Season: Early summer

The Great Plains Toad does have a cranial crest and its V shaped.

Spadefoot Toad Family – Scaphiopodidae

Spadefoot Toads are easy to seperate from the other toads and frogs because they have keratonized “spades” on their rear feet that are used for digging.

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Plains Spadefoot Toad (Spea bombifrons)

Common Name: Plains Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name: Spea bombifrons
Location: Eastern half of the state
Breeding Season:

The Plains Spadefoot Toad has a more bony boss (bump between the eyes) than the Great Basin Spadefoot Toad.

Common Name: Great Basin Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name: Spea intermontana
Location: Southwestern corner
Breeding Season: After heavy rains in early Spring or late Summer due to them being an explosive breeder

The Great Basin Spadefoot has a more glandular boss than the Plains Spadefoot Toad.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Nevada

Frogs and Toads of Nevada

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

The Northern Leopard Frog has fairly large spots all over their body. The dorsal ridge is nearly complete.

The Lowland Leopard Frog is stockier and paler than the Northern Leopard Frog.

Relict Leopard Frog (Rana onca)

The Relict Leopard Frog is a candidate for endangered species protection. The dorsal folds on the frog end well before the groin. It also has shorter legs than the Northern Leopard Frog.

The Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog is found along the border with California but is probably extinct in Nevada.

The Columbia Spotted Frog has small spots all over their body that are often lighter on the inside.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Pacific Tree Frog has the stripe through its eye but no stripes down its back.

The Canyon Tree Frog lacks a stripe that runs through its eye.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

The Arizona Toad is found in the southeast corner of the state. The toad has weak or no cranial crests.

The Red Spotted Toad has a small flattened head and body with weak or no cranial crest. It is found in the southern part of the state.

The Great Plains Toad has a well defined cranial crest that forms a V shape.

The Western Toad has no cranial crests and has a white line down its back.

The Woodhouse’s Toad has well defined cranial crest that form opposing L shapes.

Conservation status is Endangered

The Amargosa Toad is found in the Oasis Valley.  It has no cranial crest and has a stripe down its back like the Western Toad. The difference between the two is that the Amargosa Toad has a more slender head, less blunt snout, and shorter limbs.

Dixie Valley Toad (Anaxyrus williamsi)

The Dixie Valley Toad was only discovered in 2017. Its found only in the Dixie Valley in Nevada.

Spadefoot Toad – Scaphiopodidae

Great Basin Spadefoot Toad is the only spadefoot toad in the state of Washington. It has a spade on each of its rear feet which make it easy to distinguish.

Introduced

American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

The American Bullfrog is the largest native frog in the United States. There is no dorsal ridge that runs down its back on the American Bullfrog. This is the distinguishable characteristics of the frog. It has a negative effect on native animals including other frogs.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Texas

Frogs and Toads of Texas

Texas is home to a great variety of frogs and toads with over 30 different species. This makes Texas one of the froggiest states in the United States.

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

Common Name: Crawfish Frog
Scientific Name: Rana areolatus
Location: 
Breeding Season: 

The Crawfish Frog gets its name from living in crawfish holes. Its has skin folds on the side and a small typanum. It also has a pair of vocal sacs for calling.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

Common Name: American Bullfrog
Scientific Name: Rana catesbeiana
Location: 
Breeding Season:

The American Bullfrog is the largest frog in the North America.

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Green Frog / Bronze Frog (Rana clamitans)

Common Name: Green Frog
Scientific Name: Rana clamitans
Location: 
Breeding Season:

Common Name: Pig Frog
Scientific Name: Rana grylio
Location: 
Breeding Season:

The American Bullfrog looks very similar to the Green Frog but the dorsal ridge wraps around the tympanum while the Green Frog’s dorsal ridge is incomplete and does not extend all the way to its rear. The American Bullfrog is also very similar to the Pig Frog but the Pig Frog has bolder spots / stripes on the back of its thighs while the Bullfrog has light spots.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

Common Name: Northern Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana pipiens
Location: 
Breeding Season:

The Northern Leopard Frog has fairly large spots all over their body. The dorsal ridge is nearly complete.

Common Name: Rio Grande Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana berlandieri
Location: 
Breeding Season:

The Rio Grande Leopard Frog’s dorsal ridge usually stops near the rear then angles in.

Common Name: Plains Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana blairi
Location: 
Breeding Season:

The Plains Leopard Frog’s dorsal fold is usually segmented on its lower back. It usually has a white spot on its typanum or ear drum.

The Southern Leopard Frog has a nearly complete dorsal ridge just like the Northern Leopard Frog but it has a white spot in the center of its typanum.

Pickeral Frog looks like the leopard frogs but its spots are more rectangular than the leopard frogs.

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Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

The Blachard’s Cricket Frog is the only cricket frog in the state. Its skin is relatively more rough than the other tree frogs in the state. It also has no distinct markings.

The Canyon Tree Frog has rough skin and no stripes through its eyes but has a light spot below it. Its found in the western part of the state around the Big Bend area.

These two frogs are identical besides their calls and chromosome numbers. These tree frogs are also larger than the ones below. Also note that Gray Tree Frogs are not always gray and can be green.

Here is a video I took of some Eastern Gray Tree Frogs calling

The Green and Squirrel Tree Frog appear very similar. The Green Tree Frog has a stripe that goes down its side while the Squirrel Tree Frog doesn’t.

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Spotted Chorus Frog (Pseudacris clarkii)

The Spotted Chorus Frog obviously has spots that are green and are bordered by black.

Strecker’s Chorus Frog (Pseudacris strecker)

The Strecker’s Chorus Frog lacks doesn’t have any pattern of stripes or dots on its back. It has a line that runs through its eye and down its side though.

The Spring Peeper is a notoriously loud frog and one of the first signs of spring. It has a noticeable X marking on its back.

Common Name: Cajun Chorus Frog
Scientific Name:  Pseudacris fouquettei
Location: Eastern half of state
Breeding Season: November to May

Cajun Chorus Frog has three stripes that run down its back.

Smilisca_baudinii01.jpg
Mexican Tree Frog (Smilisca baudinii)

The Mexican Tree Frog is found in the southern part of the state. It is also the largest tree frog in the United States. One of the key identifying characteristics is a row of warts on its lower arms.

Southern Frogs – Leptodactylidae

Leptodactylus_fragilis01
Mexican White-Lipped Frog (Leptodactylus fragilis)

The Mexican White-Lipped Frog is the only member of its family found in the state. It has a pointy snout with white lips. The frog is found in the southern tip of the state.

Eleutherodactylidae 

Rio Grande Chirping Frog (Eleutherodactylus cystignathoides)
Eleutherodactylus_guttilatus
Spotted Chirping Frog ( Eleutherodactylus guttilatus)

The three Chirping frogs can be hard to tell apart. Best way to tell them apart is by range. Rio Grande Chirping Frog is found along the eastern side of the state. Spotted Chirping Frog is found more west while the Cliff Chirping Frog is found in the middle.

Flesh bellied Frog Family – Craugastoridae

The Barking Frog is the one species of its family in the state. It has tubercles on its feet and a skin fold on the back of the head.

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Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

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American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

The American Toad’s cranial crest and the parotoid gland to not touch or they are connected by a spur.

The Fowler’s Toad appears similar to the American Toad. Their postorbital ridge touches their parotid gland. They also have a white belly while the American Toad’s is speckled.

The Great Plains Toad has V shaped cranial crest

No cranial crest. No stripe down middle of the back.  The Green Toad has elongated parotoid gland.

The Houston Toad is a federally endangered species. It is only found in the state of Texas. The Houston Toad has thicker cranial crests than other toads in the state.

No cranial crest. No stripe down middle of the back. Parotoid gland is also rather small.

The Texas Toad ‘s cranial crests absent or weak with no stripe down its back. The tubercles on its feet are black and sharp edged. It is the state amphibian of Texas.

The Woodhouse’s Toad has opposing L shaped cranial crests.

The Coastal Plains Toad is notable from the other toads in the family Bufonidae because its in a different genus Incilius. This genus has a more defined cranial crest than Anaxyrus.

cane-toad
Cane Toad (Rhinella marina)

The highly invasive Cane Toad is actually found naturally in the southern tip of the state. It is the largest toad in the state and is highly poisonous. They have a highly prominent cranial crests and large parotoid glands.

Narrow Mouthed Toad Family – Microhylidae

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Eastern Narrow Mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne carolinensis)

The Eastern Narrow Mouthed Frog is found on the eastern edge of the state. It has a dark belly and often has a broad line down its back.

Great Plains Narrow Mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne olivacea)

The Great Plains Narrow Mouthed Toad is found throughout the state. It has a light, unmarked belly and has no patterns and a few spots on its back.

The Sheep Frog is found along the southern tip of the state. It usually has a thin line that runs down its back. It also has two spades on its rear legs. The belly has thin lines all over it.

Spadesfoot Toad Family – Scaphiopodidae

Mexican Spadefoot Toad (Spea multiplicata)

The Mexican Spadefoot Toad has no boss or bump between its eyes. It is found in the northwestern part of the state.

Plains Spadefoot Toad (Spea bombifrons) 

The Plains Spadefoot Toad has a boss between its eyes. It is found in the northwestern part of the state.

The Couch Spadefoot Toad has a sickle-shaped spade on its rear legs. It is found in the western part of the state.

Burrowing Toads – Rhinophrynidae

Mexican Burrowing Toad is the only member of its family in the state. It is found in the southern part of the state.  It has a distinct look that makes it easy to identify.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads in New Mexico

Frogs and Toads of New Mexico

Frogs

New Mexico is blessed with a great variety of different frogs.

True Frog Family – Ranidae

The family Ranidae is known as the True Frogs. They are your stereotypical frogs that you find in ponds.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeianus)

The American Bullfrog is the largest frog in the state and country. It lacks a dorsal ridge down its back.

The Rio Grande Leopard Frog is found in the southeastern border of the state with Texas. Their dorsal fold usually stops near the rear then angles in.

The Plains Leopard Frog’s dorsal fold is usually segmented on its lower back. It usually has a white spot on its typanum or ear drum.

vulnerable

The Chiricahua Leopard Frog is found in the southwestern corner of the state. It appears similar to other leopard frogs but it dorsal fold is broken into segments near its rear and they are angled inward.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

The Northern Leopard Frog has fairly large spots all over their body. The dorsal ridge is nearly complete.

The Lowland Leopard Frog is stockier and paler than the Northern Leopard Frog aThe Southern Leopard Frog has a white spot on its tympanum which can help differentiate the species from the other two. The Plains Leopard Frog is different from the Southern and Northern Leopard Frog because of its dorsal ridge. The Plains Leopard Frogs has a break and an indent near its butt while the North and South Leopard Frog just has a straight line. Its found in the southwestern part of the state.

Flesh bellied Frog Family – Craugastoridae

Barking Frog Craugastor augusti

The Barking Frog is the one species of its family in the state. It has tubercles on its feet and a skin fold on the back of the head.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

The Northern Cricket Frog is the only cricket frog in the state. Its skin is relatively more rough than the other tree frogs in the state. It also has no distinct markings.

The Canyon Tree Frog has rough skin and no stripes through its eyes. Its found in the western part of the state.

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Arizona Tree Frog (Hyla wrightorum)

The Arizona Tree Frog is only found in the western part of the state. They have no distinct markings on its back but does have a stripe that runs through the eye.

The Boreal Chorus Frog has three lines down its back. Its found in the northern half of the state.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

The Colorardo River Toad is found in the southwest corner of the state. The toad has a prominent cranial crest and large parotoid glands.

The Western Toad has no cranial crest and a white stripe down its back. Its found in the northern part of the state.

No cranial crest. No stripe down middle of the back.  The Green Toad has elongated parotoid gland.

The Arizona Toad has a weak or no cranial crest. It’s parotoid glands are round.

The Great Plains Toad has V shaped cranial crest

No cranial crest. No stripe down middle of the back. Parotoid gland is also rather small.

The Texas Toad ‘s cranial crests absent or weak with no stripe down its back. The tubercles on its feet are black and sharp edged.

The Woodhouse’s Toad has opposing L shaped cranial crests.

Narrow Mouthed Toad Family – Microhylidae

The Great Plains Narrowed Mouth Toad is the only narrowed mouth toad in the state. It’s not a true toad because it lacks a parotoid gland behind its eye and doesn’t have a keratonized spade on its rear feet.

Spadefoot Toad Family- Scaphiopodidae

The Plains Spadefoot Toad has a bony boss between its eyes that can help identify it.

The New Mexican Spadefoot Toad has no boss between its eyes. It is found throughout the state.

The Couch’s Spadefoot Toad has a sickle-shaped spade on its rear feet while the other toads in the state have more of a round one.

Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Arizona

Frogs and Toads of Arizona

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

Common Name: Plains Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana blairi
Location: 
Breeding Season: 

The Plains Leopard Frog’s dorsal fold is usually segmented on its lower back. It usually has a white spot on its typanum or ear drum.

vulnerable

Common Name: Chiricahua Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana chiricahuensis
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Chiricahua Leopard Frog is found in the southwestern corner of the state. It appears similar to other leopard frogs but it dorsal fold is broken into segments near its rear and they are angled inward. It is listed as a threatened species by the United States.

Relict Leopard Frog (Rana onca)
endangered

Common Name: Relict Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana onca
Location: Northwest corner
Breeding Season:

The Relict Leopard Frog’s dorsal folds stop before the rear.

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

Common Name: Northern Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana pipiens
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Northern Leopard Frog has fairly large spots all over their body. The dorsal ridge is nearly complete.

Common Name: Lowland Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana yavapaiensis
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Lowland Leopard Frog is stockier and paler than the Northern Leopard Frog and has the dorsal fold angled inward near the rear.

Tarahumara Frog (Rana tarahumarae)

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Common Name: Canyon Tree Frog
Scientific Name: Hyla arenicolor
Location: Western part of the state
Breeding Season:

The Canyon Tree Frog has rough skin and no stripes through its eyes. They are found along boulders and rocks above streams.

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Arizona Tree Frog (Hyla wrightorum)

Common Name: Arizona Tree Frog
Scientific Name: Hyla wrightorum
Location:
Breeding Season:

They have no distinct markings on its back but does have a stripe that runs through the eye.

Common Name: Lowland Burrowing Tree Frog
Scientific Name: Smilisca fodiens
Location: Central Pima county and slightly up into the southern border of Maricopa and Pinal
Breeding Season: June into July

The Lowland Burrowing Tree Frog is different than most other tree frogs in that it spends its time underground instead of in the trees. They are known for their large, flat head.

The Pacific Tree Frog is actually a chorus frog so it is smaller than most tree frogs.

Common Name: Boreal Chorus Frog
Scientific Name: Pseudacris maculata
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Boreal Chorus Frog has three lines down its back

Flesh bellied Frog Family – Craugastoridae

Common Name: Barking Frog
Scientific Name: Craugastor augusti
Location: 
Breeding Season: 

The Barking Frog is the one species of its family in the state. It has tubercles on its feet and a skin fold on the back of the head.

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Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

Common Name: Great Plains Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus cognatus
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Great Plains Toad has V shaped cranial crest

Common Name: Green Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus debilis
Location:
Breeding Season:

No cranial crest. No stripe down middle of the back.  The Green Toad has elongated parotoid gland.

Common Name: Arizona Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus microscaphus
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Arizona Toad has a weak or no cranial crest. It’s parotoid glands are round.

Common Name: Red Spotted Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus punctatus
Location:
Breeding Season:

No cranial crest. No stripe down middle of the back. Parotoid gland is also rather small.

Common Name: Sonoran Green Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus retiformis
Location: Southern part of the state
Breeding Season:

The Sonoran Green Toad has a yellow / green colored dots that is surrounding by black.

Common Name: Woodhouse’s Toad
Scientific Name: Anaxyrus woodhousii
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Woodhouse’s Toad has opposing L shaped cranial crests.

Common Name: Colorado River Toad
Scientific Name: Incilius alvarius
Location: Southern part
Breeding Season:

The toad has a prominent cranial crest and large parotoid glands.

Narrow Mouthed Toad Family – Microhylidae

Common Name: Great Plains Narrowed Mouth Toad
Scientific Name: Gastrophryne olivacea
Location: 
Breeding Season:

The Great Plains Narrowed Mouth Toad is the only narrowed mouth toad in the state. It’s not a true toad because it lacks a parotoid gland behind its eye and doesn’t have a keratonized spade on its rear feet.

Mazatlan Narrow-mouthed Toad (Gastrophryne mazatlanensis)

Spadefoot Toad Family – Scaphiopodidae

Common Name: Couch’s Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name:Scaphiopus couchii
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Couch’s Spadefoot Toad differs from the other spadefoot toads in the state due to its sickle shaped spade while the others are more rounded.

Common Name: Plains Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name: Spea bombifrons
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Plains Spadefoot Toad has a bony boss between its eyes that can help identify it.

Common Name: Great Basin Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name: Spea intermontana
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Great Basin Spadefoot Toad has a glandular boss between its eyes compared to the Plains Spadefoot Toad.

Common Name: Mexican Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name: Spea multiplicata
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Mexican Spadefoot Toad has no boss between its eyes.

Introduced

There are a few frogs that have been introduced to the state.

Common Name: African Clawed Frogs
Scientific Name: Xenopus laevis
Location:
Breeding Season:

The African Clawed Frog might be spreading diseases to native frog species. In the state of Arizona, it is illegal to be in possession of one without a permit. It is thought that the African Clawed Frog has spread Chytrid Fungus in the wild.

Common Name: Rio Grande Leopard Frog
Scientific Name: Rana berlandieri
Location:
Breeding Season:

Rio Grande Leopard Frog was probably introduced to the state in the 70s or 60s. The frogs could cause problems with native species by competing for food.