Frogs by State

Frogs and Toads of Missouri

Frogs and Toads of Missouri

If you are looking to identify a specific frog and can’t figure it out from the page, you can check my Frog Identification and see how to contact me about helping you out.

Frogs

True Frog Family – Ranidae

Common Name: Crawfish Frog
Scientific Name:
Rana areolatus
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Crawfish Frog gets its name from living in crawfish holes. Its has skin folds on the side and a small typanum. It also has a pair of vocal sacs for calling.

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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

Common Name: American Bullfrog
Scientific Name:
Rana catesbeiana
Location:
Breeding Season:

The American Bullfrog is the largest native frog in the United States. There is no dorsal ridge that runs down its back on the American Bullfrog. This is the distinguishable characteristics of the frog.

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Bronze /Green Frog (Rana clamitans)

Common Name: Green Frog / Bronze Frog
Scientific Name:
Rana clamitans
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Green Frog looks very much like the American Bullfrog but it’s a tad smaller. It has a dorsal ridge that runs down its back but they are incomplete and do not reach all the way.

Common Name: Plains Leopard Frog
Scientific Name
Rana blairi
Location:
Breeding Season:

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Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)

Common Name: Northern Leopard Frog
Scientific Name:
Rana pipiens
Location:
Breeding Season:

Common Name: Southern Leopard Frog
Scientific Name:
Rana spenocephalus
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Southern Leopard Frog has a white spot on its tympanum which can help differentiate the species from the other two. The Plains Leopard Frog is different from the Southern and Northern Leopard Frog because of its dorsal ridge. The Plains Leopard Frogs has a break and an indent near its butt while the North and South Leopard Frog just has a straight line.

Common Name: Pickeral Frog
Scientific Name:
Rana palustris
Location:
Breeding Season:

Pickeral Frog looks like the leopard frogs but its spots are more rectangular than the leopard frogs.

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Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica)

Common Name: Wood Frog
Scientific Name:
Rana sylvatica
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Wood Frogs are easy to identify because of the dark mask on its face.

Tree Frog Family – Hylidae

Common Name: Blanchard’s Cricket Frog
Scientific Name:
Acris blanchardi
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Blanchard’s Cricket Frog is the only cricket frog in the state. Its skin is relatively more rough than the other tree frogs in the state. It also has no distinct markings.

Green Tree Frog (Hyla cinerea)

Common Name: Green Tree Frog
Scientific Name:
Hyla cinerea
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Green Tree Frog has a white line that runs down its side. It doesn’t have any distinct markings on its back.

Common Name: Eastern Gray Tree Frog
Scientific Name:
Hyla versicolor
Location:
Breeding Season:

These two frogs are identical besides their calls and chromosome numbers. Note that Gray Tree Frogs are not always gray and can be green. They have yellow or orange coloration on their back legs which is nice to identify them.

Here is a video of some Eastern Gray Tree Frog males calling that I took

Common Name: Cope’s Gray Tree Frog
Scientific Name:
Hyla chrysoscelis
Location:
Breeding Season:

Common Name: Spring Peeper
Scientific Name:
Pseudacris crucifer
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Spring Peeper is a notoriously loud frog and one of the first signs of spring. It has a noticeable X marking on its back.

Common Name: Boreal Chorus Frog
Scientific Name:
Pseudacris maculata
Location:
Northern half of the state
Breeding Season:

The Boreal Chorus Frog has three stripes on its back are often not broken and if one is, its the middle.

Common Name: Cajun Chorus Frog
Scientific Name:
Pseudacris fouqettei
Location:
Southeast corner
Breeding Season:

Common Name: Upland Chorus Frog
Scientific Name:
Pseudacris feriarum
Location:
Southeast corner
Breeding Season:

The Upland and Cajun Chorus Frog are both found in the Southeast part of the state. They are very hard to tell apart. The best way to tell is by their calls and through genetic testing. The stripes on their back are often broken and can even appear as spots.

illinois_chorus_frog
Illinois Chorus Frog (Pseudacris illinoensis) 

Common Name: Illinois Chorus Frog
Scientific Name:
Pseudacris illnoensis
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Illinois Chorus Frog does not have a white line that extends off the lips while the other chorus frogs do.

Toads

True Toad Family – Bufonidae

The True Toads are your typical toad. They usually have a parotid gland behind their eyes that contain a poison called  It is not advised to let your dog eat these guys.

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American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

Common Name: American Toad
Scientific Name:
Anaxyrus americanus
Location:
Breeding Season:

The American Toad’s cranial crest and the parotoid gland to not touch or they are connected by a spur.

Common Name: Great Plains Toad
Scientific Name:
Anaxyrus cognatus
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Cranial Crests of the Great Plains Toad form a V shape between the eyes

Video of a male Great Plains Toad calling by Annika Enloe

Common Name: Fowler’s Toad
Scientific Name:
Anaxyrus fowleri
Location:
Breeding Season:

Common Name: Woodhouse’s Toad
Scientific Name:
Anaxyrus woodhousii
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Fowler’s and Woodhouse’s Toads both have cranial crests that form opposing L shapes. The Fowler’s Toad has largest, dark spots on its back that have 3 or more warts in them.

Spadefoot Toads – Scaphiopodidae 

Common Name: Eastern Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name:
Scaphiopus holbrookii
Location:
Southeast corner
Breeding Season:

The Eastern Spadefoot toad’s spade is sickle shaped.

Common Name: Plains Spadefoot Toad
Scientific Name:
Spea bombifrons
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Plains Spadefoot Toad has a rounded spade compared to the Eastern Spadefoot Toad.

Narrowed Mouth Toad Family – Microhylidae

Common Name: Eastern Narrow Mouthed Toad
Scientific Name:
Gastrophryne carolinensis
Location:
Statewide
Breeding Season:

The Eastern Narrow Mouthed Frog has a dark belly and often has a broad line down its back.

Common Name: Great Plains Narrow Mouthed Toad
Scientific Name:
Gastrophryne olivacea
Location:
Breeding Season:

The Great Plains Narrow Mouthed Toad is found on the western edge of the state. It has a light, unmarked belly and has no patterns and a few spots on its back.

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